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Oils and fats are almost ubiquitous in food processing, whethernaturally occurring in foods or added as ingredients that bringfunctional benefits. Whilst levels of fat intake must be controlledin order to avoid obesity and other health problems, it remains thefact that fats (along with proteins and carbohydrates) are one ofthe three macronutrients and therefore an essential part of ahealthy diet. The ability to process oils and fats to make them acceptable aspart of our food supplies is a key component in our overallknowledge of them. Without this ability, the food that we consumewould be…mehr
Oils and fats are almost ubiquitous in food processing, whethernaturally occurring in foods or added as ingredients that bringfunctional benefits. Whilst levels of fat intake must be controlledin order to avoid obesity and other health problems, it remains thefact that fats (along with proteins and carbohydrates) are one ofthe three macronutrients and therefore an essential part of ahealthy diet. The ability to process oils and fats to make them acceptable aspart of our food supplies is a key component in our overallknowledge of them. Without this ability, the food that we consumewould be totally different, and much of the flexibility availableto us as a result of the application of processing techniques wouldbe lost. Obviously we need to know how to process fatty oils, butwe also need to know how best to use them once they have beenprocessed. This second edition of Edible Oil Processing presents avaluable overview of the technology and applications behind thesubject. It covers the latest technologies which address new environmentaland nutritional requirements as well as the current state of worldedible oil markets. This book is intended for food scientists and technologists whouse oils and fats in food formulations, as well as chemists andtechnologists working in edible oils and fats processing.
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Wolf Hamm (retired) has been a consultant to the Oils and Fats Industry, and is based in Harpenden, UK. Richard J. Hamilton is Emeritus Professor at Liverpool John Moores University, UK. Gijs Calliauw is Development Manager Modification at Desmet Ballestra, Belgium.
List of Contributors xiii List of Abbreviations xv Introduction xvii 1 Composition and Properties of Edible Oils 1 Frank D. Gunstone 1.1 Introduction 1 1.2 Components of natural fats 3 1.3 Fatty acid composition 16 1.4 Physical properties 19 1.5 Chemical properties 25 1.6 Effect of processing on food oil components 33 References 34 2 Bulk Movement of Edible Oils 41 Wolf Hamm 2.1 Oil production and exports 41 2.2 Cargo damage 45 2.3 Quality of oils shipped 47 2.4 Codex Alimentarius 48 2.5 Oil shipments: systems and regulations 49 2.6 Shore storage 52 2.7 Movement and storage costs 53 2.8 Refinery location 53 Acknowledgement 53 References 54 3 Production of Oils 55 Philippe van Doosselaere 3.1 Introduction 55 3.2 Seed handling and storage 56 3.3 Preparation of oilseeds 60 3.4 Preparation of soybean 61 3.5 Preparation and pressing of rapeseed (canola) 69 3.6 Preparation and pressing of sunflower seed 77 3.7 Full pressing 78 3.8 Oil from other seeds 81 3.9 Olive oil production 87 3.10 Palm oil production 91 4 Solvent Extraction 97 Timothy G. Kemper 4.1 Introduction 97 4.2 Solvent extractor 99 4.3 Meal desolventiser toaster 107 4.4 Meal dryer cooler 114 4.5 Miscella distillation system 117 4.6 Solvent recovery system 119 4.7 Heat recovery 123 References 125 5 Edible Oil Refining: Current and Future Technologies 127 Wim De Greyt 5.1 Introduction 127 5.2 Next generation chemical refining with nanoneutralisation 128 5.3 Enzymatic degumming: a missing link in the physical refining of soft oils? 131 5.4 Bleaching: from single stage colour removal to multistage adsorptive purification 136 5.5 Deodorisation: much more than just a process for the removal of off flavours 141 5.6 Short path distillation and supercritical processing: refining technologies for the future? 148 References 150 6 Oil Modification Processes 153 Marc Kellens and Gijs Calliauw 6.1 Introduction 153 6.2 Hydrogenation 154 6.3 Interesterification 166 6.4 Dry fractionation 175 production 191 References 195 7 Enzyme Processing 197 David Cowan 7.1 Introduction 197 7.2 Enzyme applications before oil refining 199 7.3 Applications within edible oil modification 208 7.4 Improving processing sustainability through enzyme usage 219 References 221 8 Application of Edible Oils 223 Arjen Bot and Eckhard Fl¿oter 8.1 Introduction 223 8.2 Physical chemistry of triacylglycerides 225 8.3 Fat crystal networks 228 8.4 Design of functional TAG compositions 229 8.5 Application in fat continuous emulsions (spreads) 234 8.6 Application in water continuous emulsions 237 8.7 Application in other fat continuous products 241 8.8 Conclusion 245 References 246 9 Quality and Food Safety Assurance and Control 251 Mar Verhoeff and Gerrit van Duijn 9.1 Introduction 251 9.2 Analytical methods for measuring oil and fat composition 252 9.3 Quality analyses 252 9.4 Supply chain contaminants 257 9.5 Quality and food safety assurance 261 References 266 10 Oil Processing Design Basics 267 Gerrit van Duijn and Gerrit den Dekker 10.1 Introduction 267 10.2 Refining and modification process routes for most common oil types 268 10.3 Oil processing block diagram design 274 10.4 Effective equipment capacity 283 operations 285 10.5 Tank park design rules 285 10.6 Design estimates for utilities consumptions and effluent production 291 10.7 Occupational safety by design 301 References 310 Further Reading 311 Index 313
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