Advisory work, by its very nature, is an intermediary between the re search worker and those who apply the results of his research. The challenge of advisory work is to devise means of and find pathways for transmitting research results to the user, overcome the reluctance of the latter to change, and often combine novel ideas with well-estab lished traditions. Nowhere is this challenge greater than in farming. This is especially true in developing countries, where the gap in the educational level between research workers and farmers may be ex tremely wide. Moreover, village-level advisers are…mehr
Advisory work, by its very nature, is an intermediary between the re search worker and those who apply the results of his research. The challenge of advisory work is to devise means of and find pathways for transmitting research results to the user, overcome the reluctance of the latter to change, and often combine novel ideas with well-estab lished traditions. Nowhere is this challenge greater than in farming. This is especially true in developing countries, where the gap in the educational level between research workers and farmers may be ex tremely wide. Moreover, village-level advisers are often overburdened with non-professional functions and are not sufficiently backed up by well-trained professional advisers. Thus, in many of these countries there is a serious discrepancy between the knowledge available and that needed and actually applied on the farm. Advisory work in crop protection is no exception, but profits to some extent from two facts: (1) because of the potentially catastrophic nature of pest attack, governments often operate a supervisory crop protection service, the staff of which may be able to dispense some pest control advice; and (2) the staff of pesticide distributors tends to fill, at least in part, the need for advice on how to fight pests and dis eases with chemicals.
1 Advisory Work in Pest and Disease Management in the General Framework of Agricultural Production.- 1.1 The Place of Pest and Disease Management in the Agricultural Economy, and Its Legal Framework.- 1.1.1 Communal, Risk, and Emergency Aspects of Crop Pest and Disease Control.- 184.108.40.206 Risk.- 220.127.116.11 Emergency.- 1.1.2 The Legal Framework for Pest and Disease Control and for the Adviser's Work.- 18.104.22.168 Importance of the Legal Framework.- 22.214.171.124 Aspects to Be Covered by Law.- 126.96.36.199 Legal Aspects and the Adviser's Work.- 1.2 Crop Protection Advice: Its Place in the General Scheme of Farming and of Farm Advice.- 1.2.1 Overall Phytosanitary Management - the Basic Aim of Crop Protection Advice.- 1.2.2 A Crop Worth Protecting Is the Prerequisite for Crop Protection.- 1.2.3 Aspects Particular to Advisory Work in Pest and Disease Control.- 188.8.131.52 Multi-Crop and Multi-Annual Aspects.- 184.108.40.206 Urgency of Advice.- 1.2.4 Integration of General Cropping and Pest Control Advice.- 220.127.116.11 Risk of Crop Loss.- 18.104.22.168 Availability and Proficiency of Advisory Personnel.- 22.214.171.124 Farmers' Educational Level.- 126.96.36.199 Availability of Auxiliary Services.- 1.2.5 The Target Groups for Advisory Work in Pest and Disease Control.- 1.2.6 Organizational Concepts for Integrating Cropping and Crop Protection Advice.- 1.2.7 A Brief Look at the Range and Limitations of Advice by Public Agencies and by Pesticide Distributors.- 1.3 Basic Knowledge and Current Information for the Crop Protection Adviser.- 1.3.1 Basic Knowledge.- 188.8.131.52 The Crop in Health.- 184.108.40.206 Innate Destructiveness of Pests and Pathogens.- 1.3.2 Current Information for the Adviser.- 220.127.116.11 Potential Crop Value and Current Prices of Produce.- 18.104.22.168 Pesticide Registration and Compatibility.- 22.214.171.124 Health Risks and Antidotes.- 126.96.36.199 Weather Data.- 1.4 Farmers' Perceptions of Pest and Disease Control.- 2 Advice for Pest and Disease Control: Tasks and Tools.- 2.1 The Range of Crop Protection Advice Is Extremely Wide.- 2.2 Detection and Diagnosis of Crop Disorders and of Pest and Disease Occurrence.- 2.2.1 Nonparasitic Disorders in Field and Orchard Crops.- 188.8.131.52 Stress and Injury.- 184.108.40.206 Patterns of Symptom Distribution.- Spatial Distribution.- Distribution over Plant Species.- Diagnosis of Air Pollution Symptoms.- 220.127.116.11 Recognition of Some Common Symptoms of Nonparasitic Disorders in Field Crops.- 18.104.22.168 Recognition of Some Nonparasitic Disorders in Fruit Crops.- Disorders Due to Weather Factors.- Nutrient and Water-Related Disorders.- Incompatibility of Rootstock and Scion.- 2.2.2 First Steps in the Detection and Diagnosis of Pest and Pathogen Trouble.- 22.214.171.124 Symptoms Caused by Pests and Pathogens on the Host as a Whole or on Major Parts of the Host.- 126.96.36.199 Common Symptoms of Pests and Pathogens Affecting Single Organs of the Shoot.- Spots on Leaves and Fruits.- Holes and Tunnels.- Dry and Soft Rots.- Crinkling or Curling of Leaves.- 188.8.131.52 Pest and Pathogen Symptoms Common on Field and Vegetable Crops.- Pre- and Post-emergence Afflictions.- "Heart Trouble".- The Host as a Whole Is Affected.- Individual Organs Are Affected.- 184.108.40.206 Pest and Pathogen Symptoms Common on Orchard Crops.- The Tree as a Whole Is Affected.- Individual Organs Are Affected.- 220.127.116.11 Diagnosis of Combined Stress and Pest or Pathogen Afflictions.- 18.104.22.168 A Look into the Future: Computer-Based Disease Diagnosis.- 2.2.3 The Disease Identification Service or Plant Clinic.- 22.214.171.124 Function and Scope of the Disease Identification Service.- 126.96.36.199 What Crop Afflictions Most Frequently Require Identification by the Plant Clinic?.- 188.8.131.52 How Can the Adviser Derive Full Benefit from the Clinic?.- 2.3 Crop Value, Economic Damage Thresholds, and Treatment Thresholds.- 2.3.1 Factors Affecting the Level of Yield Reduction and the Economic Damage Threshold.- 2.3.2 Damage or Yield Reduction Amenable to Mitigation or Prevention.- 2.3.3 Prognosis of Preventable Yield Reduction.- 2.3.4 Crop Factors Affec
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