Reducing CO2 Emissions - Proops, John L. R.; Faber, Malte; Wagenhals, Gerhard
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  • Broschiertes Buch

The global greenhouse effect may be one of the greatest challenges ever to face humankind. If fossil fuel use, and the consequent CO emissions, 2 continue to increase at their current trend, there is the possibility that over the next century there will be massive climate change and the flooding of coastal areas. The economics profession is beginning to respond to this challenge, through seeking to understand the economic processes which detennine the demand for energy, the proportion of this energy supplied by fossil fuels, and the policy instruments available for reducing fossil fuel demand…mehr

Produktbeschreibung
The global greenhouse effect may be one of the greatest challenges ever to face humankind. If fossil fuel use, and the consequent CO emissions, 2 continue to increase at their current trend, there is the possibility that over the next century there will be massive climate change and the flooding of coastal areas. The economics profession is beginning to respond to this challenge, through seeking to understand the economic processes which detennine the demand for energy, the proportion of this energy supplied by fossil fuels, and the policy instruments available for reducing fossil fuel demand while still supplying appropriate amounts of energy. This study is a contribution to that literature. We examine the impact of structural changes in the German and UK economies upon CO emissions 2 over the last two decades, and explore the potential for further structural change to reduce such emissions. This study is different from much of the current literature, in that we do not presuppose that the respective economies consist of only one, or a few, sectors. Instead, we analyse the interrelationships of 47 sectors for about 20 years, using input-output methods. We also deal with the effects of the changing sectoral structure of imports and exports of these two countries on the 'responsibility' for CO emissions. On the basis of this extensive evidence we have a solid 2 foundation to develop different scenarios to show how the 'Toronto target' of reducing CO emissions by 20% over 20 years can be achieved.
  • Produktdetails
  • Verlag: Springer, Berlin
  • Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 1993
  • Seitenzahl: 320
  • Erscheinungstermin: 16. Dezember 2011
  • Englisch
  • Abmessung: 242mm x 170mm x 17mm
  • Gewicht: 550g
  • ISBN-13: 9783642777943
  • ISBN-10: 3642777945
  • Artikelnr.: 36114753
Inhaltsangabe
I. Introduction.- 1 Introduction.- 1.1 The Study.- 1.2 The Greenhouse Effect and Global Warming.- 1.2.1 The Natural Greenhouse Effect.- 1.2.2 The Anthropogenic Greenhouse Effect.- 1.2.3 The Evidence for Global Warming.- 1.3 Industrialisation and the Control of Nature.- 1.4 The Difficulty of Political Implementation of CO2 Targets.- 1.4.1 Wish and Will: The Need for Consensus.- 1.4.2 Reductions in CO2 Emissions: Local, National and Global Levels.- 1.5 Practical Implementation of CO2 Reduction.- 1.6 The Contents of the Book.- 2 Concepts and Methods for the Study.- 2.1 Introduction.- 2.2 Our Point of Departure.- 2.3 The CO2 Problem.- 2.4 General Principles for Ecological Economic Modelling.- 2.4.1 Empirical Foundations.- 2.4.2 Time.- 2.4.3 Natural Boundary Conditions.- 2.4.4 Non-Linear Relationships.- 2.4.5 Production.- 2.4.6 Demand.- 2.4.7 Quantities and Prices.- 2.4.8 Modelling Ex Post and Ex Ante.- 2.5 Our Aims.- 2.6 Our Method.- II. Understanding CO2 Emissions.- 3 The Problem of Climate Change and CO2 Emissions.- 3.1 Introduction.- 3.2 The Nature of the Problem.- 3.3 The Evidence.- 3.3.1 Global Greenhouse Gas Emissions.- 3.4 Historical Trends.- 3.4.1 Conversion Units.- 3.4.2 Data on Energy Use, CO2 Emissions and GDP.- 3.5 Review of CO2 Modelling in the Economics Literature.- 3.5.1 Factors Determining CO2 emissions.- 3.5.1.1 Output and Population Growth.- 3.5.1.2 Energy Efficiency.- 3.5.1.3 Energy Price.- 3.5.1.4 Back-Stop Technologies.- 3.5.2 Key Determinants of the Costs of Abating GHG Emissions.- 3.5.3 Emission Reduction Scenarios.- 3.5.3.1 Reduction Targets.- 3.5.3.2 Policy Instruments.- 3.5.3.3 Growth Effects.- 3.6 Outlook and Conclusions.- 4 Decomposing the Rate of Change of CO2 Emissions.- 4.1 Introduction.- 4.2 Understanding the Time Structure of CO2 Emissions.- 4.2.1 The Influential Variables.- 4.3 CO2 Emissions as a Product of Several Variables.- 4.4 Decomposing the Components of CO2 Emission Changes.- 4.4.1 Necessary Extensions to the Technique.- 4.5 The Rates of Change of CO2 Emissions.- 4.6 Conclusions.- A4 Appendix: Decomposition with Differencing.- A4.1 Introduction.- A4.2 The Differential Approach to Decomposition.- A4.3 Approximating the Differential with the Difference.- A4.4 Resolving Ambiguity: Forward, Backward and Central Differences.- A4.5 Calculating the Differencing Remainder Term.- A4.6 Differencing Error-Prone Empirical Data.- 5 CO2 Emissions by Germany and the UK.- 5.1 Introduction.- 5.2 Energy Use, CO2 Emission and GDP for Germany and the UK.- 5.2.1 Data Sources.- 5.2.2 The CO2/Energy Ratio and the Fuel Mix.- 5.3 Energy Use and GDP.- 5.4 Energy Use and CO2 Emission by Fuel Types.- 5.5 Energy Use and CO2 Emission by Households and in Production.- 5.6 Production CO2 Emission by Sector.- 5.7 Decomposition of German and UK CO2 Emission Changes.- 5.7.1 Decomposition of Total CO2 Emissions Changes.- 5.7.2 Decomposition of Production CO2 Emissions Changes.- 5.7.3 Decomposition of Households CO2 Emissions Changes.- 5.7.4 Decomposition of Total CO2 Emissions Changes.- 5.8 Sectoral Decomposition of CO2 Emissions Changes.- 5.8.1 Decomposition of Overall Rates of Change of CO2 Emission by Sectors.- 5.8.2 Decomposition of Aggregate CO2 Emission Changes.- 5.8.3 A Full Sectoral Decomposition of UK Production CO2 Emissions Changes.- 5.9 Conclusions.- III. Modelling Approach.- 6 A Framework for Modelling Production.- 6.1 Introduction.- 6.2 Invention, Innovation and Irreversibility.- 6.3 Activity Analysis vs. Production Functions.- 6.4 Activity Analysis and Input-Output Analysis.- 6.4.1 Input-Output Analysis and National Accounting.- 6.4.2 Activity Analysis and Dynamics.- 6.5 Input-Output Approaches versus General Equilibrium Models.- 6.6 Conclusions.- 7 Input-Output Methods.- 7.1 Introduction.- 7.2 Inter-Industry Trading and Input-Output Tables.- 7.2.1 A Two Sector Input-Output Model.- 7.2.2 Activity Analysis as the Production Assumption.- 7.2.3 Output Structure in Equation Form.- ...