In Western countries conscientious objections are usually
accommodated in various ways, at least in certain areas (military
conscription, medicine) and to some extent. They appear to be
regarded as fundamentally different from other kinds of objection.
But why? Some people question the legitimacy of conscientious
objection in certain contexts, or to certain matters. Thereby, they
indirectly challenge the legitimacy of conscientious objection as
such. The historical development of thought on conscience has
exacerbated the situation. For reasons such as these, a search for
a philosophical foundation of conscientious objection was called
for. In this study it is argued that conscientious objections
cannot be understood as long as conscience is misunderstood. Hence,
part I provides a new interpretation of the historical development
of expressions of conscience and thought on the subject, informed
by a novel approach to conscience as a symbol. Part II is concerned
with the theory and practice of freedom of conscience. In part III
a new approach to conscientious objection is developed, rooted in
the symbol-approach to conscience, and both informed by and in
contrast with existing theories of conscientious objection.
Ausstattung/Bilder: 638 p. - 2 zwart-wit - 23.4 x 15.5 cm
Abmessung: 234mm x 156mm x 34mm
Dr. Anders Schinkel is a historian and philosopher. His publications span the philosophy of history, ethics, and sociology. One of the main foci of his present research lies in the field of animal ethics.
Preface 10 Contents 12 General Introd uction 24 About this book 24 Reality, consciousness, and language 39 The theory of symbols 50 Method 64 Part 1 74 Ch.1: The symbol of conscience 76 Introduction 76 Preliminary understanding of conscience 78 The Emergence of the symbol 81 Core elements of the symbol of conscience 107 Some imaginative symbols 114 Ch. 2: Between symbol and doctrine: the conceptualization of conscience untill the early Middle Ages 124 Introduction 124 From compactness to differentiation 126 Concluding remarks 170 Ch.3: Between symbol and doctrine: differentiation and doctrinalization the religious conscience before and after the Reformation 172 Introduction 172 From compactness to differentiation 173 From symbol to doctrine and back? Conscience in Renaissance and Reformation 186 Concluding remarks 203 Ch. 4: Between symbol and doctrine: the first wave of criticism the seventeenth century 204 Introduction 204 Thomes Hobbes on Conscience, metaphor, and the abuse of language 204 John Locke 211 Influence 225 Ch. 5: Between symbol and doctrine: Conscience grounded in Nature and Reason 230 Conscience as a faculty 230 Conscience as an agent of the perfection of man and society 236 Evaluation: prospects for the new conscience 271 Some notes on the romantic conscience 276 Ch. 6: Between symbol and doctrine: the second wave of criticism the nineteenth century 286 Preparations: from 'Nature' to 'Nurture' 286 Jeremy Bentham 293 Charles Darwin 300 Sigmund Freud 306 Concluding remarks 313 Ch. 7: Twentieth century concepts of conscience 316 Introduction 316 Gilbert Ryle 329 Niklas Luhmann 336 Concluding remarks 344 Ch. 8: A fluid concept of conscience 346 The symbol and concept of conscience 346 Conscience as a mode of consci ousness 351 The development of conscience as an education towards openness 361 Ultimate concern 367 Conscience, luminosity, and intentionality 373 The moral quality of our own contribution to the process of reality 375 Conscience and experience 379 Part 2 382 Transition to part 2 384 Ch. 9: Conscience and freedom of conscience 390 Introduction 390 How conscience and freedom of conscience were related 390 Where conscience and freedom of conscience part 394 Ch. 10: The problem of order 400 Introduction 400 The first dimension: political order 402 The second dimension: the ordered mind 418 Concluding remarks 437 Ch. 11: Between idealism and pragmatism 438 Introduction 438 Dynamics of order: between idealism and pragmatism 439 Ch. 12: Solutions to the problem of order 460 Introduction 460 Before Luhmann 462 Luhmann and after 468 How to understand freedom of conscience 476 Concluding remarks 479 Part 3 482 Transition to part 3: Conscientious objection 484 Ch. 13: Identifying conscientious objections 490 Wheter only conscientious objection understoon and expressed as such can be identified as cosnientious objection 497 Core elements of the symbol of conscience as indicators of the conscientiousness of objections 501 Identifiers of conscientious objection, on the public level 516 Concluding remarks 530 Ch. 14: Conscie ntious objection, the state, and the law 532 Introduction 532 The critical function of conscientious objection and the contingent character of positive law 533 Conscientious objection and state power 543 Conscientious objection as a 'legal pressure valve' 545 Concluding remarks 546 Ch. 15: Two case studies 550 Introduction 550 Military conscription in the Netherlands; the last ten years 552 Conscientious Objections and gay marriage 568 Concluding remarks 587 Ch. 16: Philosophical foundations of conscientious ob