As a result of the green revolution, the use of yield-increasing inputs such as fer tilizer and pesticides became a matter of course in irrigated rice farming in Southeast Asia. Pesticides were applied liberally, both as a guarantee against crop failure and as a means of fully utilizing the existing yield potential of the crops. However, since outbreaks of pests, such as the brown planthopper (BPH) or the tungro virus, continued to occur despite the application of chemicals, a change of approach began to take place. It is now being realized more and more in Southeast Asia that crop protection…mehr
As a result of the green revolution, the use of yield-increasing inputs such as fer tilizer and pesticides became a matter of course in irrigated rice farming in Southeast Asia. Pesticides were applied liberally, both as a guarantee against crop failure and as a means of fully utilizing the existing yield potential of the crops. However, since outbreaks of pests, such as the brown planthopper (BPH) or the tungro virus, continued to occur despite the application of chemicals, a change of approach began to take place. It is now being realized more and more in Southeast Asia that crop protection problems cannot be resolved solely by the application of chemicals. In the past several years, increasing efforts have there fore been made to introduce, as a first step, supervised crop protection, leading gradually to integrated pest management (Kranz, 1982). Although the crop protection problems naturally differ in the different devel oping countries in Southeast Asia, the economic situation prevailing in these countries can nevertheless be regarded as an important common determinant: pesticide imports use up scarce foreign currency and thus compete with other imports essential to development. For the individual rice farmer, the problem is basically the same: his cash funds are limited and he must carefully weigh whether to use them for purchas ing pesticides, fertilizer or certified seed. In view of this constraint, it is becom ing necessary to abandon the purely prophylactic, routine calendar spraying and instead, employ critically timed and need-based pesticide applications.
1 Background Conditions and Current Situation in Irrigated Rice Farming.- 1.1 General Cropping Conditions.- 1.2 Organization of Extension and Crop Protection Services.- 1.2.1 Organizational Structure of the General Extension Service.- 1.2.2 Organizational Structure of the Crop Protection Service.- 1.3 The Major Pests of Rice.- 2 Assessment of Crop Loss Due to Pests in Irrigated Rice Farming.- 2.1 Assessment of Crop Loss in the Philippines.- 2.1.1 Official Pesticide Evaluation Trials.- 2.1.2 Trials Concerning Higher Levels of Crop Protection Intensity.- 2.1.3 Trials Concerning Alternative Pest Control Methods.- 2.1.4 Trials Conducted by the Author.- 2.1.5 Summary of Crop Loss Assessments in the Rice Crop of the Philippines.- 2.2 Crop Loss Assessments by Means of Damage Coefficients.- 2.2.1 Methodology.- 220.127.116.11 Selection of Exogenous Variables.- 18.104.22.168 Selection of Endogenous Variables.- 22.214.171.124 Determination of the Potential Yield.- 2.2.2 Selection of the Correct Type of Function.- 2.2.3 Presentation of Available Data.- 126.96.36.199 Data for Non-Resistant Varieties.- 188.8.131.52 Data for Resistant Varieties.- 2.2.4 Sorting of Available Data.- 2.2.5 Determination of Damage Coefficients by Means of Simple and Multiple Regression Analysis.- 184.108.40.206 Greenhouse and Cage Trials.- 220.127.116.11 Insecticide Trials.- 18.104.22.168 Results Obtained for Resistant Varieties Using Data from Field Trials.- 22.214.171.124 Summarizing Assessment of Findings and Comparison with the Relevant Extension Recommendations.- 2.2.6 Computation of Crop Losses on the Basis of Infestation Data and Damage Coefficients.- 126.96.36.199 Analysis of Pest Development Over Time.- Non-Resistant Varieties.- Resistant Varieties - Untreated Plots.- Resistant Varieties - Observation Stations.- 188.8.131.52 Results of Crop Loss Computations.- Non-Resistant Varieties.- Resistant Varieties - Untreated Plots.- Resistant Varieties - Observation Stations.- Summarizing Evaluation of Crop Loss Computations.- 3 Bases of Micro-Economic Analysis of Chemical Crop Protection Measures.- 3.1 Definition of the Concept of Economic Thresholds.- 3.1.1 Entomologists' Definition.- 3.1.2 Economists' Definition.- 3.1.3 Relation Between Economic Damage Threshold and Control Threshold.- 184.108.40.206 Relation Between the Two Threshold Levels for Rice Pests.- 3.1.4 Consideration of Mixed Infestations.- 3.1.5 Dynamic Aspects.- 3.1.6 Summary.- 3.2 Methods of Calculation for Economic Analysis of Crop Protection Measures.- 3.2.1 Analysis of Production Functions.- 3.2.2 Cost and Returns Analysis.- 3.2.3 Systems Analysis Approach.- 220.127.116.11 Bio-Economic Simulation Models.- 18.104.22.168 Decision Theoretic Approach.- Pay-Off Matrix.- Theoretical Decision Rules.- Practical Decision Rules.- 22.214.171.124 Summary and Comparison.- 4 Alternative Crop Protection Strategies in Irrigated Rice Cultivation: Comparison and Evaluation by Means of a Computer Model.- 4.1 Description of the Model.- 4.2 Model Assumptions.- 4.2.1 Control Strategies.- 126.96.36.199 Strategies for Granules.- 188.8.131.52 Strategies for Sprays.- 184.108.40.206 Strategies Used by Farmers.- 220.127.116.11 Extension Recommendations.- 18.104.22.168 Other Strategies.- 4.2.2 Effectiveness of Control.- 22.214.171.124 Strategies for Granules.- 126.96.36.199 Strategies for Sprays.- 188.8.131.52 Strategies Used by Farmers.- 184.108.40.206 Extension Recommendations.- 220.127.116.11 Other Strategies.- 4.2.3 Control Costs.- 18.104.22.168 Pesticides.- 22.214.171.124 Labour.- 126.96.36.199 Interest.- 188.8.131.52 Cost of Additional Harvest.- 4.2.4 Socio-Economic Conditions in the Three Investigation Areas.- 184.108.40.206 Farm and Family Size.- 220.127.116.11 Land Tenure.- 18.104.22.168 Costs and Returns.- 22.214.171.124 Potential Yield.- 126.96.36.199 Crop Prices.- 188.8.131.52 Farm Income Situation and Necessary Minimum Yields.- 184.108.40.206 Liquidity Position.- 220.127.116.11 Opportunity Costs of Cash.- 4.3 Results of the Model Computations.- 4.3.1 Results Computed for the Nueva Ecija Area.- 18.104.22.168 Model Assumptions.- 22.214.171.124 The Optimum Strategy.- Comparison Between Optimum Strategy and Farmers' Strategies.- 126.96.36.199 Benefit of the
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