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This book describes the analysis and design of precision temperature sensors in CMOS IC technology. It focusses on so-called smart temperature sensors, which provide a digital output signal that can be readily interpreted by a computer. The sensors described in this book are based on bipolar transistors, which are available as parasitic devices in standard CMOS technology. The relevant physical properties of these devices are described. A sigma-delta converter plays a key role in the conversion to a digital output. Both the system-level design of such a converter, and the circuit-level…mehr

Produktbeschreibung
This book describes the analysis and design of precision temperature sensors in CMOS IC technology. It focusses on so-called smart temperature sensors, which provide a digital output signal that can be readily interpreted by a computer. The sensors described in this book are based on bipolar transistors, which are available as parasitic devices in standard CMOS technology. The relevant physical properties of these devices are described. A sigma-delta converter plays a key role in the conversion to a digital output. Both the system-level design of such a converter, and the circuit-level implementation using both continuous-time and switched-capacitor techniques are described. Special attention is paid to the application of precision interfacing techniques. Precision Temperature Sensors in CMOS Technology ends with a detailed description of three realized prototypes. The final prototype achieves an inaccuracy of only ±0.1ºC (3Sigma) over the temperature range of 55ºC to 125ºC, which is the highest performance reported to date.
  • Produktdetails
  • Analog Circuits and Signal Processing
  • Verlag: Springer / Springer Netherlands
  • Artikelnr. des Verlages: 11675235
  • 2006
  • Seitenzahl: 316
  • Erscheinungstermin: 19. Oktober 2006
  • Englisch
  • Abmessung: 241mm x 160mm x 22mm
  • Gewicht: 621g
  • ISBN-13: 9781402052576
  • ISBN-10: 140205257X
  • Artikelnr.: 20947402
Autorenporträt
Prof. Johan Huijsing has (co) authored and edited over 20 books with Springer / Kluwer. Dr. Michiel Pertijs graduated "cum laude" for his PhD work on the Temperature Sensor
Inhaltsangabe
Acknowledgment.

1. INTRODUCTION. 1.1 Motivation and Objectives. 1.2 Basic Principles. 1.3 Context of the Research. 1.4 Challenges. 1.5 Organization of the Book. References.

2. CHARACTERISTICS OF BIPOLAR TRANSISTORS. 2.1 Introduction. 2.2 Bipolar Transistor Physics. 2.3 Temperature Characteristics of Bipolar Transistors. 2.4 Bipolar Transistors in Standard CMOS Technology. 2.5 Processing Spread. 2.6 Sensitivity to Mechanical Stress. 2.7 Effect of Series Resistances and Base-Width Modulation. 2.8 Effect of Variations in the Bias Current. 2.9 Conclusions. References.

3. RATIOMETRIC TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT USING BIPOLAR TRANSISTORS. 3.1 Introduction. 3.2 Generating an Accurate Current-Density Ratio. 3.3 Generating an Accurate Bias Current. 3.4 Trimming. 3.5 Curvature Correction. 3.6 Compensation for Finite Current-Gain. 3.7 Series-Resistance Compensation. 3.8 Conclusions. References.

4. SIGMA-DELTA ANALOG-TO-DIGITAL CONVERSION. 4.1 Introduction. 4.2 Operating Principles of Sigma-Delta ADCs. 4.3 First-Order Sigma-Delta Modulators. 4.4 Second-Order Sigma-Delta Modulators. 4.5 Decimation Filters. 4.6 Filtering of Dynamic Error Signals. 4.7 Conclusions. References.

5. PRECISION CIRCUIT TECHNIQUES. 5.1 Introduction. 5.2 Continuous-Time Circuitry. 5.3 Switched-Capacitor Circuitry. 5.4 Advanced Offset Cancellation Techniques. 5.5 Conclusions. References.

6. CALIBRATION TECHNIQUES. 6.1 Introduction. 6.2 Conventional Calibration Techniques. 6.3 Batch Calibration. 6.4 Calibration based on DVBE Measurement. 6.5 Voltage Reference Calibration. 6.6 Conclusions. References.

7. REALIZATIONS. 7.1 A Batch-Calibrated CMOS Smart Temperature Sensor. 7.2 A CMOS Smart Temperature Sensor with a 3s Inaccuracy of ±0.5° C from -50° C to 120° C. 7.3 A CMOS Smart Temperature Sensor with a 3s Inaccuracy of ±0.1° C from -55° C to 125° C. 7.4 Benchmark. References.

8. CONCLUSIONS. 8.1 Main Findings. 8.2 Other Applications of thisWork. 8.3 Future Work. References.

Appendices. A Derivation of Mismatch-Related Errors. A.1 Errors in DVBE

B Resolution Limits of Sigma-Delta Modulators with a DC Input. B.1 First-Order Modulator. B.2 Second-Order Single-Loop Modulator. References.

C Non-Exponential Settling Transients. C.1 Problem Description. C.2 Settling Transients from VBE1 ¹ 0 to VBE2 . C.3 Settling Transients from VBE1 = 0 to VBE2 . Summary.

About the Authors. Index.

Acknowledgment.

1. INTRODUCTION. 1.1 Motivation and Objectives. 1.2 Basic Principles. 1.3 Context of the Research. 1.4 Challenges. 1.5 Organization of the Book. References.

2. CHARACTERISTICS OF BIPOLAR TRANSISTORS. 2.1 Introduction. 2.2 Bipolar Transistor Physics. 2.3 Temperature Characteristics of Bipolar Transistors. 2.4 Bipolar Transistors in Standard CMOS Technology. 2.5 Processing Spread. 2.6 Sensitivity to Mechanical Stress. 2.7 Effect of Series Resistances and Base-Width Modulation. 2.8 Effect of Variations in the Bias Current. 2.9 Conclusions. References.

3. RATIOMETRIC TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT USING BIPOLAR TRANSISTORS. 3.1 Introduction. 3.2 Generating an Accurate Current-Density Ratio. 3.3 Generating an Accurate Bias Current. 3.4 Trimming. 3.5 Curvature Correction. 3.6 Compensation for Finite Current-Gain. 3.7 Series-Resistance Compensation. 3.8 Conclusions. References.

4. SIGMA-DELTA ANALOG-TO-DIGITAL CONVERSION. 4.1 Introduction. 4.2 Operating Principles of Sigma-Delta ADCs. 4.3 First-Order Sigma-Delta Modulators. 4.4 Second-Order Sigma-Delta Modulators. 4.5 Decimation Filters. 4.6 Filtering of Dynamic Error Signals. 4.7 Conclusions. References.

5. PRECISION CIRCUIT TECHNIQUES. 5.1 Introduction. 5.2 Continuous-Time Circuitry. 5.3 Switched-Capacitor Circuitry. 5.4 Advanced Offset Cancellation Techniques. 5.5 Conclusions. References.

6. CALIBRATION TECHNIQUES. 6.1 Introduction. 6.2 Conventional Calibration Techniques. 6.3 Batch Calibration. 6.4 Calibration based on DVBE Measurement. 6.5 Voltage Reference Calibration. 6.6 Conclusions. References.

7. REALIZATIONS. 7.1 A Batch-Calibrated CMOS Smart Temperature Sensor. 7.2 A CMOS Smart Temperature Sensor with a 3s Inaccuracy of ±0.5° C from -50° C to 120° C. 7.3 A CMOS Smart Temperature Sensor with a 3s Inaccuracy of ±0.1° C from -55° C to 125° C. 7.4 Benchmark. References.

8. CONCLUSIONS. 8.1 Main Findings. 8.2 Other Applications of this Work. 8.3 Future Work. References.

Appendices. A Derivation of Mismatch-Related Errors. A.1 Errors in DVBE

B Resolution Limits of Sigma-Delta Modulators with a DC Input. B.1 First-Order Modulator. B.2 Second-Order Single-Loop Modulator. References.

C Non-Exponential Settling Transients. C.1 Problem Description. C.2 Settling Transients from VBE1 ¹ 0 to VBE2 . C.3 Settling Transients from VBE1 = 0 to VBE2 . Summary.

About the Authors. Index.