Bees as Superorganisms - Moritz, Robin F.A.; Southwick, Edward E.
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  • Broschiertes Buch

The honeybee (Apis melli/era L. ) is one of the better studied organisms on this planet. There are plenty of books on the biology of the honeybee for all, the scientist, the beekeeper, and the layman. In view of this flood of publications one is tempted to ask: why does it require another one? The answer is simple: a new one is not required and we do not intend to present a new book on "the honeybee". This would really just add some more inches to the already overloaded bookshelf without sub stantial new information. Instead, we intend to present a book on the honeybee colony. This of course…mehr

Produktbeschreibung
The honeybee (Apis melli/era L. ) is one of the better studied organisms on this planet. There are plenty of books on the biology of the honeybee for all, the scientist, the beekeeper, and the layman. In view of this flood of publications one is tempted to ask: why does it require another one? The answer is simple: a new one is not required and we do not intend to present a new book on "the honeybee". This would really just add some more inches to the already overloaded bookshelf without sub stantial new information. Instead, we intend to present a book on the honeybee colony. This of course immediately releases the next question: so what is the difference? Although the difference may look insignificant at first glance, we try to guide the reader with a fundamentally different approach through the biology of honeybees and eusocial insect societies in general. The biology of individual colony members is only addressed when it is necessary to explain colonial mechanisms, and the colony as a whole, as a biological unit, which is the main focus of this treatise. Both of us felt that all current textbooks on bee biology put too much emphasis on the individual worker, queen or drone in the colony. Often it is com pletely neglected that the colony is a very significant (if not the most significant) biological structure in bee biology.
  • Produktdetails
  • Verlag: Springer, Berlin
  • Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 1992
  • Seitenzahl: 416
  • Erscheinungstermin: 21. Dezember 2011
  • Englisch
  • Abmessung: 235mm x 155mm x 22mm
  • Gewicht: 628g
  • ISBN-13: 9783642846687
  • ISBN-10: 3642846688
  • Artikelnr.: 36114542
Inhaltsangabe
1 What Is a Superorganism?.- 1.1 From Cells to Metazoan Organisms.- 1.2 What Makes a Social Group a Superorganism?.- 1.3 Diversity of Superorganisms.- 1.3.1 Termites.- 1.3.2 Superorganismic Ants.- 1.3.3 Bees.- 1.3.4 The Naked Mole Rat.- 1.4 What Not to Expect from Superorganisms.- 2 Evolution of Superorganisms.- 2.1 From Solitary Individuals to Superorganisms: The Theories.- 2.1.1 Darwin's Dilemma.- 2.1.2 Individual Selection Models.- 2.1.2.1 Kin Selection.- 2.1.2.2 Assured Fitness Returns.- 2.1.2.3 Parental Manipulation.- 2.1.2.4 Mutualism and Reciprocal Altruism.- 2.1.2.5 Testing Theories.- 2.1.3 Group Selection.- 2.1.3.1 Classical Group Selection.- 2.1.3.2 Competitive Group Selection.- 2.1.3.3 Colony-Level Selection.- 2.1.3.4 Testing Theories of Group Selection.- 2.2 From Solitary Individuals to Superorganisms: The Evidence.- 2.2.1 Sociality in Bees.- 2.2.2 Solitary and Subsocial Bees.- 2.2.2.1 Megachile rotundata: The Individualist.- 2.2.2.2 Carpenter Bees: The Hierarchists.- 2.2.3 Primitively Social Bees.- 2.2.3.1 Exoneura bicolor Smith: The Mutualist.- 2.2.3.2 Halictine Bees: Getting Social.- 2.2.3.3 Bombus: Controlling Environment.- 2.2.4 Superorganismic Bees.- 2.2.4.1 Stingless Bees.- 2.2.4.2 Evolution Within the Genus Apis.- 3 Physiology.- 3.1 Development.- 3.1.1 From Egg to Adult.- 3.1.2 Caste.- 3.1.3 Birth, Aging, and Death of a Superorganism.- 3.1.3.1 Birth.- 3.1.3.2 Aging and Age Variation.- 3.1.3.3 Death and Immortality.- 3.2 Glands and Secretions.- 3.2.1 Endocrine System.- 3.2.2 Exocrine System.- 3.3 Feeding and Digestion.- 3.3.1 Nutrition.- 3.3.2 Food Exchange and the Meniscus Effect.- 3.3.3 Pollen Stores.- 3.3.4 Making Honey.- 3.4 Respiration.- 3.4.1 Respiration in Individuals.- 3.4.2 Respiration in Colonies.- 3.5 Circulation.- 3.5.1 Haemolymph Circulation.- 3.5.2 Circulation in the Colony.- 3.6 Colonial Excretion and Water Balance.- 3.7 Metabolic Physiology.- 3.7.1 Temperature Control.- 3.7.1.1 Cooling.- 3.7.1.2 Heating.- 3.7.1.3 Maintenance of Nest Temperature.- 3.7.1.4 Optimal Environmental Temperature and Nest Choice.- 3.7.2 Mass-Metabolism Relationships and Colony Fitness.- 3.7.3 Seasonal Relationships.- 3.8 Neurophysiology.- 3.8.1 Vision.- 3.8.2 Chemical Sense.- 3.8.3 Acoustic and Mechanical Reception.- 3.8.4 Special Sense, Learning and Integration.- 3.9 Muscle Function.- 3.9.1 Locomotion and Flight.- 3.9.2 Stinging and Biting.- 3.10 Circadian Rhythms and Sleep.- 3.10.1 Cyclic Metabolism.- 3.10.2 Cyclic Locomotion.- 3.10.3 Cyclic Ventilation.- 3.10.4 Sleep.- 4 Communication Network of the Superorganism.- 4.1 The Analysis of Communication Networks.- 4.2 Division of Labour.- 4.3 Food Procurement and Temperature Regulation.- 4.3.1 The Search for Food.- 4.3.1.1 Individual Search Pattern of a Scout.- 4.3.1.2 Foraging a Patch of Flowers.- 4.3.2 Communication Mechanisms.- 4.3.2.1 Round Dance.- 4.3.2.2 Waggle Dance.- 4.3.2.3 Acoustic Signals.- 4.3.2.4 Odour Signals.- 4.3.2.5 Dorsoventral Abdominal Vibration (DVAV) Dance.- 4.3.3 Central Food Handling and Social Integration.- 4.3.3.1 Amoeboid Foraging Pattern.- 4.3.3.2 Nectar Storage.- 4.3.3.3 Queueing.- 4.3.3.4 Comb Utilization.- 4.3.3.5 Water Handling.- 4.4 Search for Housing.- 4.4.1 Nest Site Selection.- 4.4.2 Swarm Orientation.- 4.4.3 Migration.- 4.5 Pheromones.- 4.5.1 Superorganismal Control.- 4.5.2 Queen Pheromones Inside the Nest.- 4.5.2.1 Queen Retinue Behaviour.- 4.5.2.2 Colony Stabilization and Ovary Suppression in Workers.- 4.5.3 Queen Pheromones Outside the Nest.- 4.5.3.1 Swarm Attraction.- 4.5.3.2 Sex Attractant.- 4.5.4 Worker Pheromones.- 4.5.4.1 Orientation.- 4.5.4.2 Colony Defence.- 4.5.5 Other Pheromones and Odours.- 4.6 Learning.- 4.7 Social Intelligence and Network Analysis.- 4.7.1 Social Intelligence.- 4.7.2 Network Analysis.- 5 Ecology.- 5.1 Demography of Natural Populations.- 5.1.1 Life History Strategies.- 5.1.1.1 Sessile Phase.- 5.1.1.2 Mobile Phase.- 5.1.1.3 Life Cycle.- 5.1.2 Spatial and Temporal Distribution.- 5.1.2.1 Colony Defence.