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This book aims to bring to the forefront a field that has been developing since the late 1990s called the STAR pathway for Signal Transduction and Activation of RNA. It is a signaling pathway that targets RNA directly; in contrast to the canonical signal-kinase cascade-transcription factor-DNA-RNA. It is proposed to allow quick responses to environment changes such as those necessary in many biological phenomenona such as the nervous system, and during development. The pathway is diagramed in Chapter 1, Figure1. This chapter is a historical introduction and general review with some new data on…mehr
This book aims to bring to the forefront a field that has been developing since the late 1990s called the STAR pathway for Signal Transduction and Activation of RNA. It is a signaling pathway that targets RNA directly; in contrast to the canonical signal-kinase cascade-transcription factor-DNA-RNA. It is proposed to allow quick responses to environment changes such as those necessary in many biological phenomenona such as the nervous system, and during development. The pathway is diagramed in Chapter 1, Figure1. This chapter is a historical introduction and general review with some new data on theoretical miRNAs binding sites and STAR mRNAs. In Chapter 2, Feng and Banks address the accumulating evidence that the RNA-binding activity and the homeostasis of downstream mRNA targets of STAR proteins can be regulated by phosphorylation in response to various extracellular signals. Then Ryder and Massi review the available information on the structure of the RNA binding STAR domain and provides insights into how these proteins discriminate between different RNA targets. Next Claudio Sette offers an overview of the post-translational modifications of STAR proteins and their effects on biological functions, followed by two chapters dedicated to in depth review of STAR function in spermatogenesis and in mammalian embryonic development. Chapters 7 and 8 discuss what can be learned from STAR proteins in non-mammalian species; in Drosophila and Gld-1 and Asd-2 in C. elegans. Next Rymond discusses the actual mech- ics of splicing with mammalian SF1.
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Talila Volk is an associate professor in the field of Developmental Biology and the incumbent of the Sir Ernest B. Chain Professional Chair. Her major research interest is in tissue morphogenesis and organogenesis during embryonic development. She has been studying the function and activity of the STAR family member Held Out Wing (HOW) in the fruit fly Drosophila since 1999. She served as the chair for the Society of Developmental Biology in Israel (ISDB). Dr. Volk has gained her BSc from Tel Aviv University, and her MSc and PhD degrees from the Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, Israel.Karen Artzt is an Ashbel Smith Professor Emeritus at the University of Texas at Austin where she directed a research laboratory for 20 years. There she was a member of the Section of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology. Prior to that she was an associate Member of the Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center in New York. Her main research interests include developmental genetics with an emphasis on cancer biology. In collaboration with Tom Ebersole she identified and cloned the mouse gene quaking that was one of the founding members of the STAR family. Dr. Artzt received her academic degrees from Cornell university; a BA from the Ithaca campus and a PhD from the Medical College School of Graduate Sciences in New York City. In 1972 she spent a year as a postdoctoral fellow at the Pasteur Institute in Paris under the direction of the Nobel Prize winner, Francois Jacob.
1. STAR TREK: An Introduction to STAR Family Proteins and Review of QKIKaren Artzt and Jiang I. WuAbstractHistory of the STAR FamilyThe Domain Structure and Alternate Splicing of STAR ProteinsSTAR Proteins Have a Multitude of Developmental FunctionsDiverse Molecular Functions of STAR Proteins in RNA ProcessingQk Expression in the Adult Nervous System and DiseaseQk 3? UTR Conservation and a High Theoretical Number of miRNA Binding SitesDiscussion and ConclusionFuture Applications, New Research, Anticipated Developments2. THE STAR FAMILY MEMBER: QUAKING (QKI) AND CEL SIGNALINGYue Feng and Andrew BankstonAbstractIntroductionQKI Is Essential for Embryonic and Postnatal DevelopmentPhosphorylation of QKI Isoforms by Src?PTKS Regulates the Cellular Fate of QKI mRNA Targets at Multiple Post?Transcriptional StepsNumerous Extracellular Signals Can Be Linked to the Src?PTK?QKI PathwayPotential Role of QKI And Src?PTK Signaling in Tumorigenesis and Cognitive DiseasesConclusion3. INSIGHTS INTO THE STRUCTURAL BASIS OF RNA RECOGNITION BY STAR DOMAIN PROTEINSSean P. Ryder and Francesca MassiAbstractIntroductionThe STAR DomainRNA Recognition By STAR ProteinsStar Domain StructureConclusionNote Added in Proof4. Post?translat ional Regulat ion of STAR Proteins and Effects on Their Biological FunctionsClaudio SetteAbstractIntroductionSam68: A Brief OverviewRegulation of Sam68 Functions by Tyrosine PhosphorylationRegulation of Sam68 Functions by Serine/Threonine PhosphorylationRegulation of Sam68 Functions by MethylationRegulation of Sam68 Functions by Acetylation and SumoylationPost?Translational Modifications of SLM?1 and SLM?2Post?Translational Modifications of the QKI ProteinsPost?Translational Modifications of SF1Conclusion5. EXPRESSION AND FUNCTIONS OF THE star PROTEINS Sam68 AND t?star IN MAMMALIAN SPERMATOGENESISIngrid Ehrmann and David J. ElliottAbstractGene Expression Control in SpermatogenesisExpression ofSTAR Proteins during SpermatogenesisProtein Structure and ModificationsMouse Knockout Models Define the Roles of STAR Proteins in Testis FunctionThe STAR Protein Sam68 Is Involved in Translational Control in SpermatogenesisSTAR Proteins Might Play Roles in Pre?mRNA Splicing Control in SpermatogenesisOther Potential Roles of STAR Proteins in SpermatogenesisConclusion6. The role of quaking in mammalian embryonic developmentMonica J. Justice and Karen K. HirschiAbstractIntroductionQuaking Is Required for the Formation of Embryonic VasculatureQKI5 Regulates QKI6 and QKI7 in Visceral EndodermMolecular Basis of Blood Vessel FormationQuaking Is Required for Visceral Endoderm Differentiated FunctionOther Possible Roles for Quaking in Cardiovascular DevelopmentThe Evolving Roles of Quaking FunctionConclusion7. Drosophila STAR Proteins: What Can Be Learned from Flies?Talila VolkAbstractSTAR Proteins in DrosophilaHOW Regulates Differentiation of Diverse TissuesHOW and Kep1 Regulate Cell Division and Apoptosis in DrosophilaConclusionNote Added in Proof8. C. ELEGANS STAR PROTEINS, GLD?1 AND ASD?2, REGULATE SPECIFIC RNA TARGETS TO CONTROL DEVELOPMENTMin?Ho Lee and Tim SchedlAbstractMultiple Functions of GLD?1 in Germline DevelopmentGLD?1 Molecular AnalysismRNA Targets: GLD?1 Is a Translational RepressormRNA Targets: Further Insights into GLD?1 Function in Germline DevelopmentmRNA Targets: Towards Defining the GLD?1 RNA Binding Motif and Mechanism of Translational RepressionHow Is GLD?1 Expression Regulated?ASD?2, Another C. elegans Star Protein, Functions in Alternative SplicingConclusion9. THE BRANCHPOINT BINDING PROTEIN: In and Out of the Spliceosome CycleBrian C. RymondAbstractBbp and Sf1 Are Site?Specific Rna Binding ProteinsA Bbp?Mud2 Heterodimer Functions in Branchpoint RecognitionBbp?Mud2 and the Dynamics of Early Spliceosome AssemblyCo?Transcriptional Pre?mRNA SplicingBut Is Bbp Really an
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