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Introduction to Flight Testing Introduction to Flight Testing Provides an introduction to the basic flight testing methods employed on general aviation aircraft and unmanned aerial vehicles Introduction to Flight Testing provides a concise introduction to the basic flight testing methods employed on general aviation aircraft and unmanned aerial vehicles for courses in aeronautical engineering. There is particular emphasis on the use of modern on-board instruments and inexpensive, off-the-shelf portable devices that make flight testing accessible to nearly any student. This text presents a…mehr

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Produktbeschreibung
Introduction to Flight Testing Introduction to Flight Testing Provides an introduction to the basic flight testing methods employed on general aviation aircraft and unmanned aerial vehicles Introduction to Flight Testing provides a concise introduction to the basic flight testing methods employed on general aviation aircraft and unmanned aerial vehicles for courses in aeronautical engineering. There is particular emphasis on the use of modern on-board instruments and inexpensive, off-the-shelf portable devices that make flight testing accessible to nearly any student. This text presents a clear articulation of standard methods for measuring aircraft performance characteristics. Topics covered include aircraft and instruments, digital data acquisition techniques, flight test planning, the standard atmosphere, uncertainty analysis, level flight performance, airspeed calibration, stall, climb and glide, take-off and landing, level turn, static and dynamic longitudinal stability, lateral-directional stability, and flight testing of unmanned aircraft systems. Unique to this book is a detailed discussion of digital data acquisition (DAQ) techniques, which are an integral part of modern flight test programs. This treatment includes discussion of the analog-to-digital conversion, sample rate, aliasing, and filtering. These critical details provide the flight test engineer with the insight needed to understand the capabilities and limitations of digital DAQ. Key features: * Provides an introduction to the basic flight testing methods and instrumentation employed on general aviation aircraft and unmanned aerial vehicles. * Includes examples of flight testing on general aviation aircraft such as Cirrus, Diamond, and Cessna aircraft, along with unmanned aircraft vehicles. * Suitable for courses on Aircraft Flight Test Engineering. Introduction to Flight Testing provides resources and guidance for practitioners in the rapidly-developing field of drone performance flight test and the general aviation flight test community.

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  • Produktdetails
  • Verlag: John Wiley & Sons
  • Seitenzahl: 352
  • Erscheinungstermin: 19. Mai 2021
  • Englisch
  • ISBN-13: 9781118949801
  • Artikelnr.: 61926001
Autorenporträt
James W. Gregory is an associate professor in the Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, and Associate Director for UAS of the Aerospace Research Center at The Ohio State University. He received his Bachelor of Aerospace Engineering from Georgia Tech, and masters and doctorate degrees in Aeronautics and Astronautics from Purdue University. His research interests focus on development of pressure-sensitive paint as an advanced measurement technique, drag reduction of bluff body wakes via aerodynamic flow control, and flight testing of unmanned aircraft systems. His work experience includes stints at the US Air Force Research Laboratory Air Vehicles Directorate, the US Air Force Academy, Delta Air Lines, NASA Glenn Research Center, Tohoku University in Japan, and as a Fulbright Scholar at the Technion in Israel. He is an instrument-rated private pilot. Tianshu Liu is a professor and the director of Applied Aerodynamics Laboratory at Western Michigan University. He received a Ph.D. in aeronautics and astronautics from Purdue University in 1996. He was a research scientist at NASA Langley Research Center in 1999-2004. His research areas are experimental and applied aerodynamics and fluid mechanics. In particular, he has contributed to image-based measurement techniques for various physical quantities such as surface pressure, temperature/heat-transfer, skin friction, velocity fields, aeroelastic deformation, and distributed and integrated forces. His topics also include videogrammetry and vision for aerospace applications, flow control, flapping flight, flight vehicle design, turbulence and transition, and flight tests.
Inhaltsangabe
About the Authors xiiiSeries Preface xvPreface xviiAcknowledgements xxiAbout the Companion Website xxiii1 Introduction 11.1 Case Study: Supersonic Flight in the Bell XS-1 31.2 Types of Flight Testing 91.2.1 Scientific Research 91.2.2 Experimental Flight Test 121.2.3 Developmental Test and Evaluation 141.2.4 Operational Test and Evaluation 141.2.5 Airworthiness Certification 151.3 Objectives and Organization of this Book 17Nomenclature 18Acronyms and Abbreviations 19References 192 The Flight Environment: Standard Atmosphere 222.1 Earth's Atmosphere 232.2 Standard Atmosphere Model 242.2.1 Hydrostatics 242.2.2 Gravitational Acceleration and Altitude Definitions 252.2.3 Temperature 262.2.4 Viscosity 272.2.5 Pressure and Density 282.2.6 Operationalizing the Standard Atmosphere 292.2.7 Comparison with Experimental Data 302.3 Altitudes Used in Aviation 32Nomenclature 34Subscripts 34Acronyms and Abbreviations 35References 353 Aircraft and Flight Test Instrumentation 363.1 Traditional Cockpit Instruments 363.1.1 Gyroscopic-Based Instruments 383.1.2 Pressure-Based Instruments 383.1.3 Outside Air Temperature 413.1.4 Other Instrumentation 423.2 Glass Cockpit Instruments 423.3 Flight Test Instrumentation 453.3.1 Global Navigation Satellite System 463.3.2 Accelerometers 493.3.3 Gyroscopes 493.3.4 Magnetometers 503.3.5 Barometer 513.3.6 Fusion of Sensor Data Streams 513.4 Summary 52Nomenclature 54Subscripts 54Acronyms and Abbreviations 54References 554 Data Acquisition and Analysis 564.1 Temporal and Spectral Analysis 564.2 Filtering 614.3 Digital Sampling: Bit Depth Resolution and Sample Rate 634.4 Aliasing 664.5 Flight Testing Example 694.6 Summary 69Nomenclature 70Subscripts 70Acronyms and Abbreviations 70References 715 Uncertainty Analysis 725.1 Error Theory 735.1.1 Types of Errors 735.1.2 Statistics of Random Error 765.1.3 Sensitivity Analysis and Uncertainty Propagation 775.1.4 Overall Uncertainty Estimate 795.1.5 Chauvenet's Criterion for Outliers 795.1.6 Monte Carlo Simulation 805.2 Basic Error Sources in Flight Testing 815.2.1 Uncertainty of Flight Test Instrumentation 815.2.2 Example: Uncertainty in Density (Traditional Approach) 855.2.3 Example: Uncertainty in True Airspeed (Monte Carlo Approach) 86Nomenclature 88Subscripts 89Acronyms and Abbreviations 89References 896 Flight Test Planning 906.1 Flight Test Process 906.2 Risk Management 936.3 Case Study: Accept No Unnecessary Risk 966.4 Individual Flight Planning 976.4.1 Flight Area and Airspace 986.4.2 Weather and NOTAMs 996.4.3 Weight and Balance 1006.4.4 Airplane Pre-Flight 1036.5 Conclusion 105Nomenclature 105Acronyms and Abbreviations 105References 1057 Drag Polar Measurement in Level Flight 1077.1 Theory 1077.1.1 Drag Polar and Power Required for Level Flight 1077.1.2 The PIW-VIW Method 1127.1.3 Internal Combustion Engine Performance 1147.1.4 Propeller Performance 1197.2 Flight Testing Procedures 1247.3 Flight Test Example: Cirrus SR20 125Nomenclature 127Acronyms and Abbreviations 129References 1298 Airspeed Calibration 1328.1 Theory 1328.1.1 True Airspeed 1348.1.2 Equivalent Airspeed 1348.1.3 Calibrated Airspeed 1358.1.4 Indicated Airspeed 1378.1.5 Summary 1378.2 Measurement Errors 1388.2.1 Instrument Error 1388.2.2 System Lag 1388.2.3 Position Error 1398.3 Airspeed Calibration Methods 1428.3.1 Boom-Mounted Probes 1438.3.2 Trailing Devices and Pacer Aircraft 1438.3.3 Ground-Based Methods 1458.3.4 Global Positioning System Method 1458.4 Flight Testing Procedures 1478.5 Flight Test Example: Cirrus SR20 148Nomenclature 150Subscripts 151Acronyms and Abbreviations 151References 1519 Climb Performance and Level Acceleration to Measure Excess Power 1539.1 Theory 1539.1.1 Steady Climbs 1549.1.2 Energy Methods 1609.2 Flight Testing Procedures 1659.2.1 Direct Measurement of Rate of Climb 1659.2.2 Measurement of Level Acceleration 1669.3 Data Analysis 1679.4 Flight Test Example: Cirrus SR20 168Nomenclature 172Subscripts 173Acronyms and Abbreviations 173References 17410 Glide Speed and Distance 17510.1 Theory 17610.1.1 Drag Polar 17610.1.2 Gliding Flight 17910.1.3 Glide Hodograph 18010.1.4 Best Glide Condition 18110.2 Flight Testing Procedures 18310.3 Data Analysis 18510.4 Flight Test Example: Cirrus SR20 186Nomenclature 188Subscripts 188Acronyms and Abbreviations 189References 18911 Takeoff and Landing 19011.1 Theory 19011.1.1 Takeoff Ground Roll 19111.1.2 Landing Ground Roll 19311.1.3 Rotation Distance 19411.1.4 Transition Distance 19411.1.5 Climb Distance 19511.1.6 Total Takeoff and Landing Distances 19511.1.7 Simple Estimations 19511.2 Measurement Methods 19611.3 Flight Testing Procedures 19711.3.1 Standard Flight Procedures 19711.3.2 Flight Test Procedures 19911.3.3 Data Acquisition 20011.3.4 Data Analysis 20011.4 Flight Test Example: Cessna R182 201Nomenclature 202Subscripts 203Acronyms and Abbreviations 204References 20412 Stall Speed 20512.1 Theory 20612.1.1 Viscous Boundary Layers 20712.1.2 Flow Separation 20812.1.3 Two-Dimensional Stall Characteristics 20912.1.4 Three-Dimensional Stall Characteristics 21112.1.5 Stall Control 21112.1.6 Stall Prediction 21312.2 Flight Testing Procedures 21412.2.1 Flight Characteristics 21412.2.2 Data Acquisition 21612.3 Data Analysis 21712.4 Flight Test Example: Cirrus SR20 219Nomenclature 221Subscripts 222Acronyms and Abbreviations 222References 22213 Turning Flight 22413.1 Theory 22413.2 Flight Testing Procedures 23213.2.1 Airworthiness Certification 23213.2.2 Educational Flight Testing 23313.2.3 Piloting 23313.2.4 Instrumentation and Data Recording 23413.3 Flight Test Example: Diamond DA40 235Nomenclature 236Subscripts 237Acronyms and Abbreviations 237References 23714 Longitudinal Stability 23814.1 Static Longitudinal Stability 23814.1.1 Theory 23814.1.2 Trim Condition 24214.1.3 Flight Testing Procedures 24414.1.4 Flight Test Example: Cirrus SR20 24514.2 Dynamic Longitudinal Stability 24614.2.1 Theory 24614.2.2 Flight Testing Procedures 25414.2.3 Flight Test Example: Cirrus SR20 255Nomenclature 257Subscripts 259Acronyms and Abbreviations 259References 25915 Lateral-Directional Stability 26115.1 Static Lateral-Directional Stability 26115.1.1 Theory 26115.1.2 Directional Stability 26415.1.3 Lateral Stability 26515.1.4 Flight Testing Procedures 26615.1.5 Flight Testing Example: Cirrus SR20 26715.2 Dynamic Lateral-Directional Stability 26915.2.1 Theory 26915.2.2 Flight Testing Procedures 27215.2.3 Flight Test Example: Cirrus SR20 272Nomenclature 274Acronyms and Abbreviations 275References 27516 UAV Flight Testing 27716.1 Overview of Unmanned Aircraft 27716.2 UAV Design Principles and Features 27916.2.1 Types of Airframes 28016.2.2 UAV System Architecture 28116.2.3 Electric Propulsion 28516.2.4 Command and Control (C2) Link 28616.2.5 Autonomy 28716.3 Flight Regulations 28816.4 Flight Testing Principles 28816.4.1 Air Data Instrumentation 28916.4.2 UAV Flight Test Planning 29016.4.3 Piloting for UAV Flight Testing 29016.5 Flight Testing Examples with the Peregrine UAS 29116.5.1 Overview of the Peregrine UAS 29116.5.2 Propulsion System Characterization 29316.5.3 Specific Excess Power: Level Acceleration and Rate of Climb 29416.5.4 Glide Flight Tests 29616.6 Flight Testing Examples with the Avanti UAS 29916.6.1 Overview of the Avanti UAS 29916.6.2 Coast-Down Testing for the Drag Polar 30116.6.3 Radio Range Testing 30316.6.4 Assessment of Autonomous System Performance 30516.7 Conclusion 305Nomenclature 307Acronyms and Abbreviations 307References 308Appendix A Standard Atmosphere Tables 310Appendix B Useful Constants and Unit Conversion Factors 313Reference 317Appendix C Stability and Control Derivatives for a Notional GA Aircraft 318Reference 319Index 321