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Aisha Saleem Khan is Associate Professor in the Department of Biological Sciences at Forman Christian College, Pakistan. She received her Ph.D. from the University of Punjab and held a post-doctoral research post at Miami University, Ohio. Her research, which focuses on plant anatomy, electron microscopy, and heavy metal toxicity, has been published in national and international publications. Aisha has over 12 years' of teaching experience in plant systematics and applied botany.
Preface xv Acknowledgements xvii 1 An Introduction to Flowering Plants: Monocots and Eudicots 1 1.1 An Introduction to Major Group of Angiosperms: Monocots, Eudicots and Basal Angiosperms 1 1.2 Plant Cell: Revisions and Few Updates 5 1.3 Intracellular and Extracellular Communications are Crucial for Cells' Metabolic Demands 19 1.4 Future Perspectives 22 References 23 Further Reading 23 2 An Introduction to Angiosperm Natural Products 31 2.1 Introduction 31 2.2 Glucose Serves as a Precursor for Formation of Primary and Secondary Metabolites in Plants 32 2.3 Classification of Natural Products of Angiosperms 33 2.4 Techniques for Isolation of Secondary Metabolites With Future Perspectives 44 References 46 Further Reading 47 3 Plant Tissues Organization of Angiosperms 53 3.1 Introduction to Plant Tissues 53 3.2 Diversity of Plant Cell 53 3.3 Parenchyma is the Main Ground Tissue of Plants 55 3.4 Collenchyma: Introduction and Distribution 55 3.5 Sclerenchyma is the Mechanical Tissue of Plants 57 3.6 Vascular Tissues: Xylem and Phloem 61 3.7 Phloem 69 3.8 Future Perspectives 72 References 72 Further Reading 73 4 Floral Cell Biology and Diversity in Floral Cells 77 4.1 Introduction to Angiosperms Flowers: Monocots and Eudicots 77 4.2 Morphological & Anatomical Characteristics of Eudicot Flowers 77 4.3 Morphology of Monocots Flowers 95 4.4 Channels and Transporters Within Floral Cells 98 4.5 Future Perspectives 102 References 102 Further Reading 103 5 Signaling During Sexual Reproduction in Angiosperms 107 5.1 Introduction 107 5.2 Angiosperms Show Diversity in Their Sporophytic and Gametophytic Generations 108 5.3 Angiosperms Spend Most Part of Their Lives as Sporophytes and Produce Gametophytes for a Shorter Period of Time 108 5.4 Septs From Pollination to Fertilization 111 5.5 Future Perspectives 128 References 128 Further Reading 129 6 Physiologically Active Metabolic Pathways in Floral Cells 135 6.1 Introduction to Floral Physiology 135 6.2 Glucose Fates in Floral Cells Differ According to Their Metabolic Demands 137 6.3 PPP Provides Floral Cells With Their Nucleotides and Important Pigments 141 6.4 ATP and NADPH Produced Through Photochemical Reactions Provide Energy for Sugar Formation in Stroma of Chloroplasts 143 6.5 Floral Photosynthesis Contributes to Sugar Requirements of Floral Whorls 145 6.6 Future Perspectives 155 References 155 Further Reading 156 7 Anthocyanins: Accumulation in Plants and Role in Industries 161 7.1 Anthocyanins Accumulation in Different Organs Is Indicative of Their Multiple Roles 161 7.2 Anthocyanidin Biosynthesis Takes Place in Cytosol of Cells, However, They are Accumulated in Vacuoles 162 7.3 Anthocyanins Exist in Modified Forms in Cells 165 7.4 Anthocyanins Transport to Vacuoles 168 7.5 Anthocyanins Role is Dependent Upon Their Location and Accumulation 168 7.6 Industrial Applications of Anthocyanins 178 7.7 Future Perspectives 181 References 182 Further Reading 184 8 Carotenoids: Introduction, Classification and Industrial Uses 189 8.1 Carotenoids are Vital for Leaves as Light Absorbing Pigments and for Flowers to Attract Their Pollinators 189 8.2 Oxygenated and De?-oxygenated Carotenoids are Major Carotenoids in Angiosperms 190 8.3 Carotenoid Biosynthesis is Under the Control of Transcriptional Regulation 193 8.4 Carotenoids are Localized in Plastids in Form of Crystals and Plastoglobuli 193 8.5 Carotenoids Accumulation Takes Place in Chromoplasts of Autumn Leaves of Eudicots 197 8.6 Carotenoids Pigments in Flowers and Pollens 197 8.7 Lutein are Important Antenna and Photoprotective Pigments in Thylakoids of Chloroplasts 199 8.8 Capsaicin is a Carotenoid Derivative Which Causes Hotness of Capsicum spp. 200 8.9 Carotenoid Accumulation in Epidermal Cells of Many Fruits is Due to Conversion
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