Species of Aphytis of the World - Rosen, David; DeBach, P.
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The great importance of accurate systematics for biological control has been pointed out and discussed time and again by numerous authors (see Clausen, 1942; Sabrosky, 1955; Schlinger and Doutt, 1964; Compere, 1969; Rosen and De Bach, 1973; DeBach, 1974; Delucchi, Rosen and Schlinger, 1976; and others) and does not require any further elaboration here. Suffice it to say that when natural enemies are being sought, or are transferred from one region to another in order to bring about biological control of an arthropod pest, correct identification of both the target pests and their natural…mehr

Produktbeschreibung
The great importance of accurate systematics for biological control has been pointed out and discussed time and again by numerous authors (see Clausen, 1942; Sabrosky, 1955; Schlinger and Doutt, 1964; Compere, 1969; Rosen and De Bach, 1973; DeBach, 1974; Delucchi, Rosen and Schlinger, 1976; and others) and does not require any further elaboration here. Suffice it to say that when natural enemies are being sought, or are transferred from one region to another in order to bring about biological control of an arthropod pest, correct identification of both the target pests and their natural enemies is an essential prerequisite for ultimate success. Failure in biological control has often resulted from inadequate systematics. This monograph, presenting a bio systematic revision of an important group of natural enemies, is therefore intended as a contribution to biological control as well as to basic science. The species of the genus Aphytis Howard (Hymenoptera: Cha1cidoidea: Aphelinidae) are minute, yellow or grayish wasps usually not exceeding one millimeter in length (see Figure I). They develop exclusively as primary ectoparasites of armored scale insects (Homoptera: Coccoidea: Diaspididae) and are the most important natural enemies of these serious pests. Armored scale insects are usually free beneath the hard covering scale or shield. The adult Aphytis female pierces the shield with the ovipositor and lays one to several eggs on the body of the scale insect.
  • Produktdetails
  • Series Entomologica .17
  • Verlag: Springer Netherlands / Springer, Berlin
  • Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 1979
  • Seitenzahl: 816
  • Erscheinungstermin: 11. November 2011
  • Englisch
  • Abmessung: 244mm x 170mm x 43mm
  • Gewicht: 1380g
  • ISBN-13: 9789400996052
  • ISBN-10: 9400996055
  • Artikelnr.: 39492545
Inhaltsangabe
I. General.- Acknowledgments.- Historical Review.- Some Nomenclatural Considerations.- The gender of Aphytis.- Transliteration of Russian names.- Collecting and Mounting Specimens.- Developmental History.- The egg.- The larva.- The pupa.- Emergence of the adult.- Duration of development.- Reproductive Biology.- Adult Behavior.- Sexual behavior.- Host selection and oviposition.- Host-feeding.- Ecology.- Host population regulation.- Distribution and abundance.- The effect of physical factors.- The effect of biotic factors.- Economic Importance and Utilization.- Utilization in biological control.- Role of Aphytis in the development of biological control.- Systematics.- Family Aphelinidae.- Genus Aphytis Howard.- Key to Aphytis and closely related genera.- List of Aphytis species.- Subgeneric classification.- Some Zoogeographical Considerations.- Phylogeny.- Morphology of Adults.- The head and its appendages.- The mesosoma.- The gaster.- The legs.- The wings.- Sexual dimorphism.- Intraspecific Variation and Evaluation of Taxonomic Criteria.- Notes on measurements.- Biosystematic Studies.- Developmental characteristics.- Other biological characteristics.- Cytological characteristics.- Reproductive characteristics.- Ethological characteristics.- Biochemical characteristics.- Conclusion.- Key to Species.- II. Specific Descriptions.- I. The vittatus group.- Plates.- II. The chilensis group.- Plates.- III. The proclia group.- Plates.- IV. The mytilaspidis group.- Plates.- V. The lingnanensis group.- Plates.- VI. The chrysomphali group.- Plates.- VII. The funicularis group.- Plates.- VIII. Unassigned species.- Plates.- Unrecognizable, dubious and unknown species.- Plates.- Appendices.- References.- Index to Animal Names.- Index to Plant Names.