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It is widely accepted that metal-reducing microorganisms have a large impact on the geochemistry of subsurface environments through the cycling of metals and organic matter, and thereby affect water quality and taste. Furthermore, metal-reducing micro-organisms have potential applications in bioremediation, mineral leaching and energy generation processes and are of evolutionary interest as metal reduction is considered to be a very ancient form of respiration. Protein characterization surprisingly indicated that possible additional functionality and alternate site promiscuity could contribute to the diverse biochemical abilities of the bacteria, especially with respect to microbe-metal interactions. Thermophilic bacteria are also able to reduce a wide spectrum of other metals including Mn (IV), Cr (VI), U (VI), Tc (VII), Co (III), Mo (VI), Au (I, III), and Hg (II) which can be used for immobilization of toxic metals/radionuclides, e.g. for the bioremediation of hot waste water of disposal sites of radioactive wastes having temperature range favorable for thermophiles for a long period of time.
The main sources of CO in hot environments inhabited by anaerobic thermophiles are volcanic exhalations and thermal degradation of organic matter. A number of phylogenetically diverse anaerobic prokaryotes, both Bacteria and Archaea, are known to metabolize CO. CO transformation may be coupled to methanogenesis, acetogenesis, hydrogenogenesis, sulfate or ferric iron reduction. The key enzyme of anaerobic CO utilization, the Ni-containing CO dehydrogenase, is synthesized in hydrogenogens as an enzyme complex with the energy-converting hydrogenase. The genomic analysis shows this enzymatic complex to be encoded by a single gene cluster.
Themophilic moulds and bacteria have been extensively studied in plant biomass bioconversion processes, as sources of industrial enzymes and as gene donors for the heterologous expression of thermostable enzymes. In the development of third generation biofuels such as bioethanol, thermophilic fungal and bacterial enzymes are of particular interest.
The entire genomes of several thermophilic bacteria and archaea have already been sequenced. The analysis of the genomic data provided resources for novel and useful proteins and enzymes. The entire genomic data have also provided specific feature of microbes and important information on the evolution of thermophilic microorganisms. In some thermophilic archaea, multiple types of chaperonins have been identified. The chaperonins have been found to change accordi
- Verlag: Springer Netherlands / Springer, Berlin
- 2. Aufl.
- Seitenzahl: 976
- Erscheinungstermin: 12. April 2013
- Abmessung: 241mm x 160mm x 56mm
- Gewicht: 1460g
- ISBN-13: 9789400758988
- ISBN-10: 9400758987
- Artikelnr.: 36639691