Insecticide Microbiology
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Of all the food produced in the world one third is lost to insect pests, weeds and diseases, and the total world population is estimated as growing from 4000 million in 1975 to about 6000 million by the year 2000. To satisfy these needs, the world's farmers must meet the extra requirement every year. The easiest way in which farmers can increase the amount of food they produce is to prevent the loss due to pests. The biological control measures which were once thought to be the safest methods of pest control have, as we now know, not proved successful on a commercial scale. In such a dismal…mehr

Produktbeschreibung
Of all the food produced in the world one third is lost to insect pests, weeds and diseases, and the total world population is estimated as growing from 4000 million in 1975 to about 6000 million by the year 2000. To satisfy these needs, the world's farmers must meet the extra requirement every year. The easiest way in which farmers can increase the amount of food they produce is to prevent the loss due to pests. The biological control measures which were once thought to be the safest methods of pest control have, as we now know, not proved successful on a commercial scale. In such a dismal situation the only solution is to use pesticides to save the losses from pests and to increase the crop yield. Apart from agriculture, pesticides have also contributed much to human com fort by controlling the vectors of typhoid, malaria, sleeping sickness, filariasis, dengue hemorrhage fever, plague etc. On the other hand, the indiscriminate use of insecticides and their harmful effects on nontarget organisms has attracted much attention from people in all walks of life, for example, scientists, administrators, the press and the public. The harmful effects of insecticides on higher organisms such as birds, fish and mammals are easy to observe and have received much attention. However, the interactions of insecticides with microorganisms such as bacteria, fungi, algae and protozoa have gone unnoticed until recently.
  • Produktdetails
  • Verlag: Springer, Berlin
  • Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 1984
  • Seitenzahl: 292
  • Erscheinungstermin: 8. Dezember 2011
  • Englisch
  • Abmessung: 244mm x 170mm x 15mm
  • Gewicht: 508g
  • ISBN-13: 9783642699191
  • ISBN-10: 3642699197
  • Artikelnr.: 36120270
Inhaltsangabe
1 Introduction.- 2 Insecticides and Microbial Environments.- 1 Introduction.- 2 Classification of Insecticides.- 2.1 Inorganic Insecticides.- 2.2 Insecticides of Natural Origin.- 2.3 Organochlorine Insecticides.- 2.4 Organophosphorus Insecticides.- 2.5 Carbamates.- 2.6 Synthetic Pyrethroids.- 3 Microbial Environments.- 3.1 Terrestrial Habitats.- 3.2 Aquatic Environments.- 3.3 The Atmosphere.- 4 Entry and Dispersal of Insecticides in Microbial Environments.- 4.1 Soil Environments.- 4.2 Aquatic Environments.- 4.3 The Atmosphere.- References.- 3 Experimental, Methodological and Analytical Approach to the Study of Microbe-Insecticide Interactions.- 1 Introduction.- 2 Accumulation.- 3 Metabolism.- 4 Analytical Implications.- 4.1 Extraction.- 4.2 Clean-Up.- 4.3 Identification and Estimation.- 5 Effects.- 5.1 Soil Microorganisms.- 5.2 Algae.- References.- 4 Microbial Accumulation of Insecticides.- 1 Introduction.- 2 Quantitative Aspects.- 3 Bioconcentration.- 4 Bioconcentration Factors and Biomagnification.- 5 Patterns of Accumulation.- 6 Factors Affecting Microbial Accumulation of Insecticides.- 6.1 Insecticide Solubility.- 6.2 Insecticide Concentration.- 6.3 Chemical Structure of Insecticides.- 6.4 Temperature and pH.- 6.5 Type and Nature of Microorganisms.- 6.6 Biomass, Cell Number and Cell Size.- 7 Mechanisms of Accumulation.- 8 Conclusions and Future Prospects.- References.- 5 Metabolism of Insecticides by Microorganisms.- 1 Introduction.- 2 Adaptation and Enrichment Techniques.- 3 Organophosphates.- 3.1 Diazinon.- 3.2 Fenitrothion.- 3.3 Methyl Parathion.- 3.4 Parathion.- 3.5 Other Organophosphates.- 3.6 Metabolites of Organophosphates.- 4 Dithioates.- 4.1 Azinophosmethyl (Gusathion).- 4.2 Malathion.- 5 Carbamates.- 5.1 Carbaryl.- 5.2 Carbofuran.- 5.3 1-Naphthol.- 6 Organochlorines.- 6.1 DDT.- 6.2 DDT Analogs.- 7 Pesticide Combination.- 8 Microorganisms and Pesticide Waste Treatment.- 9 Conclusions.- References.- 6 Enzymes Associated with the Microbial Metabolism of Insecticides.- 1 Introduction.- 2 Fundamental Reactions of Insecticide Metabolism.- 3 Organophosphates.- 4 Carbamates.- 5 Miscellaneous Enzyme Reactions.- 6 Discussion.- 7 Directions and Goals.- References.- 7 Genetic Engineering and Biological Detoxification/Degradation of Insecticides.- 1 Introduction.- 2 Insecticides, Microbes and Enzymes.- 2.1 Degradative Bacteria - Toxonomy and Phylogeny.- 2.2 Insecticides.- 3 Cellular Location of Detoxification/Degradation Genes.- 3.1 Conjugation.- 3.2 Degradative Plasmids.- 4 Genetic Engineering.- 4.1 Microorganisms and Cloning Strategies.- 4.2 Gene Cloning - the Process.- 5 Conclusion.- References.- 8 Effects of Insecticides on Soil Microorganisms.- 1 Introduction.- 2 Soil Microbial Populations.- 3 Ammonification.- 4 Nitrification.- 5 Denitrification.- 6 Biological Nitrogen Fixation.- 6.1 Symbiotic Nitrogen Fixation.- 6.2 Asymbiotic Nitrogen Fixation.- 7 Respiration.- 8 Soil Enzymes.- 9 Plant Pathogenic Microflora.- References.- 9 Effects of Insecticides on Algae.- 1 Introduction.- 2 Direct Effects.- 2.1 1,1,1-Trichloro-2,2-bis(p-Chlorophenyl)Ethane (DDT).- 2.2 Lindane.- 2.3 Aldrin, Dieldrin, and Endrin.- 2.4 Endosulfan.- 2.5 Toxaphene.- 2.6 Diazinon.- 2.7 Parathion and Methyl Parathion.- 2.8 Malathion.- 2.9 Permethrin.- 2.10 Other Insecticides.- 3 Factors Influencing Microbe/Insecticide Interactions.- 3.1 Light.- 3.2 Nutrients and Chemical Composition of the Media.- 3.3 pH and Temperature.- 3.4 Aeration.- 3.5 Insecticide Concentration.- 3.6 Insecticide Combination with Other Chemicals.- 3.7 Number, Type and Nature of Microorganisms.- 3.8 Multispecies Interactions.- 4 Secondary Effects.- 5 Conclusions and Future Prospects.- References.- 10 Cytological and Biochemical Effects of Insecticides on Microorganisms.- 1 Introduction.- 2 Cell Membranes.- 3 Energy Production, Enzymes and Metabolic Pathways.- 4 Nucleic Acids and Protein Synthesis.- 5 Photosynthesis.- 6 Cell Morphology.- 7 Conclusions and Future Prospects.- References.