Electrical Power System Essentials (eBook, PDF) - Schavemaker, Pieter; Sluis, Lou van der
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Much of the basic hardware that generates, transmits and distributes electricity has changed little over the past century. However, the techniques applied in the power system have advanced, leading to greater transformer efficiency and more economic transmission and distribution. As the demand for electricity in both the developed and developing world increases, governments and electricity providers continue to look for alternative means of creating energy through renewable sources. Today's needs also include well-designed systems that are capable of producing large quantities of electricity…mehr

Produktbeschreibung
Much of the basic hardware that generates, transmits and distributes electricity has changed little over the past century. However, the techniques applied in the power system have advanced, leading to greater transformer efficiency and more economic transmission and distribution. As the demand for electricity in both the developed and developing world increases, governments and electricity providers continue to look for alternative means of creating energy through renewable sources. Today's needs also include well-designed systems that are capable of producing large quantities of electricity in the safest, most cost-effective way for the benefit of both individuals and industry. This book provides an accessible introduction to the interesting world of alternating current (AC) power systems, focusing on the system as a whole. After laying out the basics for a steady-state analysis of three-phase power systems, the book examines: * the generation, transmission, distribution, and utilization of electric energy; * the principles of thermal, nuclear and renewable energy plants; * power system control and operation; * the organization of electricity markets, the changes currently taking place, and the developments that could lead to alternative power systems in the future. Inside, you will find appendices that support the key text, supplying information on the modeling of power system components and including basic equations derived from Maxwell's laws. Numerous practical examples, case studies and illustrations, demonstrate the theory, techniques and results presented in the text, and accompanying Powerpoint slides are available on a supplementary website. With its pragmatic approach, Power System Essentials is ideal for senior undergraduate students in electrical engineering who require an up-to-date overview of the subject. This book also acts as a concise reference, suitable for postgraduates and professionals from a range of disciplines who would like to work in this field.

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  • Produktdetails
  • Verlag: John Wiley & Sons
  • Seitenzahl: 340
  • Erscheinungstermin: 02.08.2008
  • Englisch
  • ISBN-13: 9780470987681
  • Artikelnr.: 37301134
Autorenporträt
P. H. Schavemaker, Electrical Power Systems, Faculty ofElectrical Engineering, Mathematics and Computer Science, DelftUniversity of Technology, P.O. Box 5031, 2600 GA Delft, TheNetherlands Pieter H. Schavemaker is currently an Assistant Professor in theFaculty of Electrical Engineering, Mathematics and Computer Scienceat Delft University of Technology. He has been with the PowerSystems Laboratory since 1996, and obtained his PhD in ElectricalEngineering in 2002. He teaches courses on power systems analysisto undergraduate electrical engineering students, and has a numberof years' experience teaching students and giving courses topeople in industry. He has also worked in industry with ABB (TheNetherlands) in the field of substation control systems, and he isnow working on research projects for Tennet, the Dutch technicalstandards organization. In 2004 he won the Prize Paper Award (alongwith L. van der Sluis) from the Power Engineering EducationCommittee of the IEEE Power Engineering Society, and his researchinterests include power system transients and power systemcalculations. Lou van der Sluis, Electrical Power Systems, Faculty ofElectrical Engineering, Mathematics and Computer Science, DelftUniversity of Technology, P.O. Box 5031, 2600 GA Delft, TheNetherlands Lou van der Sluis is currently a Professor in the Power SystemsDepartment at the Delft University of Technology. Along withProfessor Schavemaker, he teaches power systems analysis toundergraduate students, and also tutors practitioners working inthe power systems industry. He has authored the book Transientsin Power Systems which was published by Wiley in 2001, and wonthe Prize Paper Award (with P. Schavemaker) from the PowerEngineering Education Committee of the IEEE Power EngineeringSociety. He is a senior member of IEEE and convener of CC-03 ofCigre. His research interests include analyzing the transientrecovery voltages in medium and high voltage networks.
Inhaltsangabe
Preface xi List of Abbreviations xvii List of Symbols xix 1 Introduction to Power System Analysis 1 1.1 Introduction 1 1.2 Scope of the Material 2 1.3 General Characteristics of Power Systems 5 1.3.1 AC versus DC Systems 5 Shape of the alternating voltage 6 Sinusoidal alternating voltage 7 1.3.2 50 and 60 Hz Frequency 9 1.3.3 Balanced Three
Phase Systems 10 Power considerations 12 Rotating magnetic field 14 1.3.4 Voltage Levels 17 Line
to
line and line
to
neutral voltages 19 1.4 Phasors 20 1.4.1 Network Elements in the Phasor Domain 22 1.4.2 Calculations in the Phasor Domain 24 1.5 Equivalent Line
to
neutral Diagrams 28 1.6 Power in Single
phase Circuits 30 1.6.1 Active and Reactive Power 31 1.6.2 Complex Power 34 1.6.3 Power Factor 38 1.7 Power in Three
phase Circuits 40 1.8 Per
unit Normalization 41 1.9 Power System Structure 45 Problems 47 References 49 2 The Generation of Electric Energy 51 2.1 Introduction 51 2.2 Thermal Power Plants 53 2.2.1 The Principles of Thermodynamics 53 2.3 Nuclear Power Plants 58 2.3.1 Nuclear Fission 59 2.3.2 Nuclear Fusion 62 2.4 Renewable Energy 63 2.4.1 Wind Energy and Wind Turbine Concepts 63 2.4.2 Hydropower and Pumped Storage 67 2.4.3 Solar Power 69 2.4.4 Geothermal Power 71 2.5 The Synchronous Machine 74 Problems 82 References 84 3 The Transmission of Electric Energy 85 3.1 Introduction 85 3.2 Transmission and Distribution Network 86 3.3 Network Structures 89 3.4 Substations 91 3.5 Substation Concepts 93 3.5.1 Single Bus System 94 3.5.2 Double Bus System 95 3.5.3 Polygon Bus System 96 3.5.4 One
and
a
Half Circuit Breaker Concept 96 3.6 Protection of Transmission and Distribution Networks 97 3.6.1 Protective Relay Operating Principles 99 3.6.2 Fuses 104 3.6.3 Circuit Breakers 106 3.6.4 The Switching Arc 107 3.6.5 Oil Circuit Breakers 109 3.6.6 Air
Blast Circuit Breakers 109 3.6.7 SF6 Circuit Breakers 110 3.6.8 Vacuum Circuit Breakers 112 3.7 Surge Arresters 113 3.8 Transformers 115 3.8.1 Phase Shifts in Three
Phase Transformers 119 3.8.2 The Magnetizing Current 123 3.8.3 Transformer Inrush Current 126 3.8.4 Open Circuit and Short Circuit Tests 127 3.9 Power Carriers 129 3.9.1 Overhead Transmission Lines 131 Insulators 131 Bundled conductors 134 Galloping lines 138 Ground wires or shield wires 141 Transposition 144 3.9.2 Underground Cables 145 Plastic insulation 147 Paper
oil insulation 148 3.9.3 Gas
Insulated Transmission Lines 151 3.10 High
Voltage Direct Current Transmission 152 From AC to DC 156 Problems 160 References 161 4 The Utilization of Electric Energy 163 4.1 Introduction 163 4.2 Types of Load 164 4.2.1 Mechanical Energy 165 Synchronous motors 166 Induction motors 168 4.2.2 Light 171 4.2.3 Heat 173 4.2.4 DC Electrical Energy 173 4.2.5 Chemical Energy 175 4.3 Classification of Grid Users 177 4.3.1 Residential Loads 177 4.3.2 Commercial and Industrial Loads 179 4.3.3 Electric Railways 180 Problems 182 Reference 184 5 Power System Control 185 5.1 Introduction 185 5.2 Basics of Power System Control 187 5.3 Active Power and Frequency Control 190 5.3.1 Primary Control 190 5.3.2 Secondary Control or Load Frequency Control (LFC) 196 5.4 Voltage Control and Reactive Power 198 5.4.1 Generator Control (AVR) 199 5.4.2 Tap
Changing Transformers 201 5.4.3 Reactive Power Injection 203 Static shunt capacitors and reactors 203 Synchronous compensators 204 Static var compensator (SVC) 204 Static synchronous compensator (STATCOM) 206 5.5 Control of Transported Power 207 5.5.1 Controlling Active Power Flows 207 The phase shifter 208 5.5.2 Controlling Reactive Power Flows 210 Static series capacitors 211 Thyristor
controlled series capacitor (TCSC) 211 Static synchronous series compensator (SSSC) 212 5.5.3 Unified Power Flow Controller (UPFC) 214 5.6 Flexible AC Transmission Systems (FACTS) 215 Problems 215 References 218 6 Energy Management Systems 219 6.1 Introduction 219 6.2 Load Flow or Power Flow Computation 220 6.2.1 Load Flow Equations 220 6.2.2 General Scheme of the Newton
Raphson Load Flow 230 6.2.3 Decoupled Load Flow 234 6.2.4 DC Load Flow 238 Active power equations 239 Reactive power equations 240 6.3 Optimal Power Flow 241 6.4 State Estimator 242 6.4.1 General Scheme of the State Estimator 245 6.4.2 Bad Data Analysis 247 6.4.3 Statistical Analysis of the State Estimator 254 Properties of the estimates 254 Bad data detection 255 Bad data identification 256 Problems 257 References 260 7 Electricity Markets 261 7.1 Introduction 261 7.2 Electricity Market Structure 262 7.2.1 Transmission and Distribution 262 7.2.2 Market Architecture 263 7.3 Market Clearing 265 7.4 Social Welfare 267 7.5 Market Coupling 269 7.6 Allocation Mechanism and Zonal/Nodal Markets 274 References 277 8 Future Power Systems 279 8.1 Introduction 279 8.2 Renewable Energy 280 8.3 Decentralized or Distributed Generation 281 8.4 Power
Electronic Interfaces 285 8.5 Energy Storage 286 8.6 Blackouts and Chaotic Phenomena 287 8.6.1 Nonlinear Phenomena and Chaos 287 8.6.2 Blackouts 290 References 298 A Maxwell's Laws 299 A.1 Introduction 299 A.2 Power Series Approach to Time
Varying Fields 300 A.3 Quasi
static Field of a Parallel
plate Capacitor 302 A.3.1 Quasi
static Solution 303 A.3.2 Validity of the Quasi
static Approach 305 A.4 Quasi
static Field of a Single
turn Inductor 307 A.4.1 Quasi
static Solution 308 A.4.2 Validity of the Quasi
static Approach 310 A.5 Quasi
static Field of a Resistor 312 A.5.1 Quasi
static Solution 312 A.6 Circuit Modeling 315 Reference 316 B Power Transformer Model 317 B.1 Introduction 317 B.2 The Ideal Transformer 317 B.3 Magnetically Coupled Coils 320 B.3.1 Equivalence with the Ideal Transformer 323 B.4 The Nonideal Transformer 324 B.5 Three
Phase Transformer 327 C Synchronous Machine Model 329 C.1 Introduction 329 C.2 The Primitive Synchronous Machine 329 C.3 The Single
Phase Synchronous Machine 335 C.4 The Three
Phase Synchronous Machine 341 C.5 Synchronous Generator in the Power System 345 D Induction Machine Model 349 D.1 Introduction 349 D.2 The Basic Principle of the Induction Machine 350 D.2.1 A Single Rotor Winding 351 D.2.2 Two Rotor Windings 354 D.2.3 Rotating Rotor 354 D.3 The Magnetic Field in the Air Gap 356 D.3.1 Contribution of the Rotor Currents to the Air
Gap Field 356 D.3.2 The Flux Linkage with the Stator Windings 359 D.4 A Simple Circuit Model for the Induction Machine 360 D.4.1 The Stator Voltage Equation 360 D.4.2 The Induction Machine as Two Magnetically Coupled Coils 361 D.4.3 A Practical Model of the Induction Machine 362 D.5 Induction Motor in the Power System 363 E The Representation of Lines and Cables 365 E.1 Introduction 365 E.2 The Long Transmission Line 365 E.3 The Medium
Length Transmission Line 370 E.4 The Short Transmission Line 371 E.5 Comparison of the Three Line Models 371 E.6 The Underground Cable 374 Solutions 375 Further Reading 391 Index 393