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In the sixteenth century, silver mined by native peoples became New Spain's most important export. Silver production served as a catalyst for northern expansion, creating mining towns that led to the development of new industries, markets, population clusters, and frontier institutions. Within these towns, the need for labor, raw materials, resources, and foodstuffs brought together an array of different ethnic and social groups-Spaniards, Indians, Africans, and ethnically mixed individuals or castas. On the northern edge of the empire, 350 miles from Mexico City, sprung up Zacatecas, a…mehr

Produktbeschreibung
In the sixteenth century, silver mined by native peoples became New Spain's most important export. Silver production served as a catalyst for northern expansion, creating mining towns that led to the development of new industries, markets, population clusters, and frontier institutions. Within these towns, the need for labor, raw materials, resources, and foodstuffs brought together an array of different ethnic and social groups-Spaniards, Indians, Africans, and ethnically mixed individuals or castas. On the northern edge of the empire, 350 miles from Mexico City, sprung up Zacatecas, a silver-mining town that would grow in prominence to become the "Second City of New Spain." Urban Indians in a Silver City illuminates the social footprint of colonial Mexico's silver mining district. It reveals the men, women, children, and families that shaped indigenous society and shifts the view of indigenous peoples from mere laborers to settlers and vecinos (municipal residents). Dana Velasco Murillo shows how native peoples exploited the urban milieu to create multiple statuses and identities that allowed them to live in Zacatecas as both Indians and vecinos. In reconsidering traditional paradigms about ethnicity and identity among the urban Indian population, she raises larger questions about the nature and rate of cultural change in the Mexican north.
  • Produktdetails
  • Verlag: Stanford University Press
  • Seitenzahl: 328
  • Erscheinungstermin: 9. Oktober 2020
  • Englisch
  • Abmessung: 153mm x 228mm x 23mm
  • Gewicht: 506g
  • ISBN-13: 9781503615021
  • ISBN-10: 1503615022
  • Artikelnr.: 59325104
Autorenporträt
Dana Velasco Murillo is Associate Professor of History at the University of California, San Diego.
Inhaltsangabe
Contents and Abstracts Introduction: Silver Veins
Urban Grids
and Layered Identities chapter abstract The introduction argues that in spite of the importance of Native American emigrants
the mining historiography for Spanish America has concentrated on either the roles and activities of Spaniards or the impact of silver production on global markets. Studies on native peoples and silver mining are few in number
and primarily focused on men
their roles as temporary or coerced workers
and the hardships and exploitative conditions of mine labor. Urban Indians shifts the focus from indigenous peoples as laborers to settlers and municipal residents
stressing in the process the important roles of women and children to mining societies. While previous studies have stressed dramatic cultural transformation and rapid miscegenation among urban native peoples
Urban Indians argues that native peoples exploited the urban milieu to create multiple statuses and identities that allowed them to develop indigenous identities
practices
and associations
even as they embraced Spanish-style civic life. 1A Tale of Two Settlements
1546-1559 chapter abstract Chapter 1 considers the role of Zacatecas's preconquest indigenous population on the city's early development
the impact of Spanish dependence on foreign Indian population to meet labor needs
and the evolution of Spanish and indigenous settlements from rudimentary mining camps to urban communities in the sixteenth century. It argues that the mines could not have prospered without the large migrant Indian population from central and western Mexico that displaced the local Zacateco population. They provided the necessary labor for the emerging mining economy and its subsidiary activities
and by creating indigenous communities
they brought into being a permanent and long-term labor source. As the indigenous workforce established roots in the town
they began adapting the Spanish urban environment to meet their own settlement needs
exploiting Zacatecas's frontier setting and labor shortages to derive some concessions
such as mobility
wages
freedom from tribute and rotary labor drafts
and semiautonomous neighborhoods. 2Ethnic Cohesion and Community Formation
1560-1608 chapter abstract This chapter explores the factors and conditions that facilitated ethnic cohesion among the ethnically diverse native population and the development of indigenous civic life from the mid- to late sixteenth century. Indigenous migrants adopted and negotiated colonial spaces and institutions to re-create central Mexican-style indigenous communities and establish a corporate Indian status
allowing them to draw on concessions and protective measures afforded to native peoples under colonial rule. The evolution of a "Republic de Indios
" barrios of native communities on the outskirts of the city
created spaces where native peoples could practice indigenous and Spanish lifeways. Shared housing and labor arrangements unified the native population through personal and professional ties. The establishment of indigenous confraternities allowed native peoples to develop formal social and political organizations. Even as native peoples began assuming the role of urban vecinos
or municipal residents
they continued to identify with their ancestral heritage. 3The Creation of Indian Towns and Officials
1609-1650 chapter abstract This chapter examines the creation of formal indigenous towns
municipal councils
and leaders in the seventeenth century. It argues that the impetus for creating Indian towns and municipal councils came from an indigenous population lacking vehicles for redress and governance. It outlines the establishment of four Indian towns
Tlacuitlapan
Tonalá Chepinque
San Josef
and El Niño. It charts the evolution of Indian governance from the initial appointment of native alcaldes to the development of full-fledged indigenous municipal councils modeled on Spanish and preconquest indigenous governance practices. It discusses the changing nature and role of native rulers
highlights trends in the ethnic composition of the leadership
and documents the rise of a group of professional officeholders. Indigenous towns and municipal councils in Zacatecas provided native peoples with a modicum of juridical autonomy over indigenous affairs as it provided them entry into greater civic life within and outside of indigenous spaces. 4Indios and Vecinos: The Maturation of Urban Indigenous Society
1655-1739 chapter abstract This chapter examines the maturation of urban indigenous society in Zacatecas
both at the community and individual level
in the midcolonial period. During this period
revitalized silver production and markets
and growing populations of non-Indians
drew native peoples further into the money-economy and into greater interactions with ethnically diverse producers and consumers. Yet indigenous societies survived and flourished within these social and demographic changes because of the stability of native institutions and communities
and native vecinos who retained their associations with the indigenous world even as they acquired the skills and fluency to succeed in the Spanish urban environment. Permanent residents and incoming immigrants created a critical population mass that facilitated continued indigenous social and kinship networks. By the early eighteenth century
native peoples had developed the practices and institutions they needed to survive and prosper as a community and ethnic group in the city. 5Revival and Survival: Indigenous Society in the Mid-to-Late Colonial Period
1730-1806 chapter abstract Chapter 5 explores the dramatic changes at the local and viceregal level that indigenous peoples confronted during the long eighteenth century. Production declines and upsurges
empirewide administrative projects to centralize authority and increase economic productivity
often referred to as the Bourbon Reforms
and a rise in casta
or non-Indian
populations
affected native lands and resources
religious organizations
labor practices
and systems of governance. This chapter argues that indigenous societies and institutions remained fairly vital through the mid-1770s and that native peoples played a key role in the city's economic
social
and demographic recovery. But social
economic
and demographic changes during the last decades of colonial rule (1775-1810)
particularly Spanish attempts to dissolve Indian towns and municipal councils
weakened and undermined indigenous communities and institutions to the point that they eventually ceased to function as autonomous units in the postindependence period. Conclusion: From Indigenous Towns to Mestizo Barrios chapter abstract The conclusion offers some thoughts on the fate of the city's native communities and population after Mexico gained independence from Spain and the nature of mestizaje in northern New Spain. In Zacatecas
the dissolution of the native pueblos in 1832
and Mexican laws prohibiting classifications of native people as Indians
undermined indigenous leadership
organizations
and corporate structures. The decline of indigenous institutions and societies accelerated Zacatecas's demographic and cultural mestizaje. Yet the chapter's argument that the mestizaje of the city occurred much later than is usually presented in the scholarship-beginning in earnest only in the late eighteenth century-provides a more nuanced picture of the complex cultural changes and transformations that shaped Mexico's mestizo north.