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This book is an eye-opening treatise on the fundamentals of the effects of radiation on metals and alloys. When energetic particles strike a solid, numerous processes occur that can change the physical and mechanical properties of the material. Metals and alloys represent an important class of materials that are subject to intense radiation fields. Radiation causes metals and alloys to swell, distort, blister, harden, soften and deform. This textbook and reference covers the basics of particle-atom interaction for a range of particle types, the amount and spatial extent of the resulting…mehr
This book is an eye-opening treatise on the fundamentals of the effects of radiation on metals and alloys. When energetic particles strike a solid, numerous processes occur that can change the physical and mechanical properties of the material. Metals and alloys represent an important class of materials that are subject to intense radiation fields. Radiation causes metals and alloys to swell, distort, blister, harden, soften and deform. This textbook and reference covers the basics of particle-atom interaction for a range of particle types, the amount and spatial extent of the resulting radiation damage, the physical effects of irradiation and the changes in mechanical behavior of irradiated metals and alloys.
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Professor Gary Was is the Walter J. Weber, Jr. Professor of Sustainable Energy, Environmental and Earth Systems Engineering and holds appointments in Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences, and Materials Science and Engineering at the University of Michigan. He has held positions as Director of the Michigan Memorial Phoenix Energy Institute, Associate Dean of the College of Engineering and Chair of the Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences Department. Professor Was' research is focused on materials for advanced nuclear energy systems and radiation materials science, including environmental effects on materials, radiation effects, ion beam surface modification of materials and nuclear fuels. His current research includes development of structural materials for the SFR, behavior of fuel in the VHTR, fuel behavior modeling in LWRs, irradiation assisted stress corrosion cracking and irradiation-accelerated corrosion in water reactor environments. He is a Fellow of the Materials Research Society, ASM International, NACE International and the American Nuclear Society. Professor Was has published over 200 technical articles in referred, archival journals, presented over 300 conference papers, delivered 180 invited talks and seminars, and has published a graduate level textbook on Radiation Materials Science. Professor Was received the Presidential Young Investigator award from NSF, the Champion H. Matthewson Award from TMS, the Outstanding and Special Achievement Awards by the Materials Science and Technology Division of the American Nuclear Society, the Henry Marion Howe Medal from ASM, and the Lee Hsun Award from the Chinese Academy of Sciences.
Part I Radiation Damage. 1. The Radiation Damage Event. 1.1 Neutron-Nucleus Interactions. 1.2 Interactions Between Ions and Atoms. 1.3 Energy Loss Nomenclature. Problems. References. 2. The Displacement of Atoms. 2.1 Elementary Displacement Theory. 2.2 Modifications to the K-P Displacement Model. 2.3 The Displacement Cross Section. 2.4 Displacement Rates. 2.5 Correlation of Property Changes and Irradiation Dose. 2.6 Displacements from Charged Particle Irradiation. Nomenclature. Problems. References. 3. The Damage Cascade. 3.1 Displacement Mean Free Path. 3.2 Primary Recoil Spectrum. 3.3 Cascade Damage Energy and Cascade Volume. 3.4 Computer Simulations of Radiation Damage. 3.5 Stages of Cascade Development. 3.6 Behavior of Defects within the Cascade. Nomenclature. Problems. References. 4. Point Defect Formation and Diffusion. 4.1 Properties of Irradiation-Induced Defects. 4.2 Thermodynamics of Point Defect Formation. 4.3 Diffusion of Point Defects. 4.4 Correlated Diffusion. 4.5 Diffusion in Multicomponent Systems. 4.6 Diffusion along High Diffusivity Paths. Nomenclature. Problems. References. 5. Radiation-Enhanced and Diffusion Defect Reaction Rate Theory. 5.1 Point Defect Balance Equations. 5.2 Radiation-Enhanced Diffusion. 5.3 Defect Reactions. 5.4 React ion Rate-Controlled Processes. 5.5 Diffusion-Limited Reactions. 5.6 Mixed Rate Control. 5.7 Defect-Grain Boundary Reactions. 5.8 Coherent Precipitates and Solutes. 5.9 Point Defect Recovery. Nomenclature. Problems. References. Part II Physical Effects of Radiation Damage 6. Radiation-Induced Segregation. 6.1 Radiation-Induced Segregation in Concentrated Binary Alloys. 6.2 RIS in Ternary Alloys. 6.3 Effect of Local Composition Changes on RIS. 6.4 Effect of Solutes on RIS. 6.5 Examples of RIS in Austenitic Alloys. 6.6 RIS in Ferritic Alloys. 6.7 Effect of Grain Boundary Structure on RIS. Nomenclature. Problems. References. 7. Dislocation Microstructure. 7.1 Dislocation Lines. 7.2 Faulted Loops and Stacking Fault Tetrahedra. 7.3 Defect Clusters. 7.4 Extended Defects. 7.5 Effective Defect Production. 7.6 Nucleation and Growth of Dislocation Loops. 7.7 Dislocation Loop Growth. 7.8 Recovery. 7.9 Evolution of the Interstitial Loop Microstructure. Nomenclature. Problems. References. 8. Irradiation-Induced Voids and Bubbles. 8.1 Void Nucleation. 8.2 Void Growth. 8.3 Void Growth Equation. 8.4 Bubble Growth. Nomenclature. Problems. References. 9. Phase Stability Under Irradiation. 9.1 Radiation-Induced Segregation and Radiation-Induced Precipitation. 9.2 Recoil Dissolution. 9.3 Radiati on Disordering. 9.4 Incoherent Precipitate Nucleation. 9.5 Coherent Precipitate Nucleation. 9.6 Examples of Radiation-induced Precipitation. 9.7 Metastable Phases. 9.8 Amorphization. 9.9 Phase Stability in Reactor Core Component Alloys. Nomenclature. Problems. References. 10. Unique Effe cts o f Ion Irradiation. 10.1 Ion Irradiation Techniques. 10.2 Composition Changes. 10.3 Other Effects of Ion Implantation. 10.4 High Dose Gas Loading: Blistering and Exfoilation. 10.5 Solid Phases and Inert Gas Bubble Lattices. 10.6 Displacements due to Electronic Excitation. 10.7 Ion Beam Assisted Deposition. Nomenclature. Problems. References. 11. Simulation of Neutron Irradiation Effects with Ions. 11.1 Motivation for Using Ion Irradiation as a Surrogate for Neutron Irradiation. 11.2 Review of Aspects of Radiation Damage Relevant to Ion Irradiation. 11.3 Particle Type Dependence of RIS. 11.4 Advantages and Disadvantages of the Various Particle Types. 11.5 Irradiation Parameters for Particle Irradiations. 11.6 Emulation of Neutron Irradiation Damage with Proton Irradiation. 11.7 Emulation of Neutron Irradiation Damage with Self-Ion Irradiation. Nomenclature. Problems. References. Part III Mechanical Effects of Radiation Damage. 12 Irradiation Hardening and Deformation. 12.1 Elastic and Plastic Deformation. 12.2 Irradiation Hardening. 12. 3 Deformation in Irr
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