This is a book about how humans learn. Our focus is on classroom learning although the principles are, as the name of this book indicates, universal. We are concerned with learning from pre-school to post-graduate. We are concerned with most bu- ness, industrial and military training. We do not address how infants learn how to speak or walk, or how grown-ups improve their tennis swing. We do address all learning described by the word "thought", as well as anything we might try to teach, or instruct in formal educational settings. In education, the words theory and model imply conjecture. In…mehr
This is a book about how humans learn. Our focus is on classroom learning although the principles are, as the name of this book indicates, universal. We are concerned with learning from pre-school to post-graduate. We are concerned with most bu- ness, industrial and military training. We do not address how infants learn how to speak or walk, or how grown-ups improve their tennis swing. We do address all learning described by the word "thought", as well as anything we might try to teach, or instruct in formal educational settings. In education, the words theory and model imply conjecture. In science, these same words imply something that is a testable explanation of phenomena able to predict outcomes of experiments. This book presents a model of learning that the authors offer in the sense of scientists rather than educators. Conjecture implies that information is incomplete, and so it surely is with human learning. On the other hand, we assert that more than enough is known to sustain a "scienti?c" model of learning. This book is not a review of the literature. Instead, it is a synthesis. Scholars and many teachers likely have heard much if not most or even all of the information we use to develop the uni?ed learning model. What you have not read before is a model putting the information together in just this way; this is the ?rst one.
Preface.1. The Unified Learning Model.Working Memory. Knowledge. Motivation. Three Principles of Learning. Developing the Unified Learning Model.2. Learning. The Neurobiology of Learning. The Operation of the Neuron. The Architecture of the Brain. What is Knowledge? How Learning Works. Meaningful Learning. The Centrality of Working Memory. Motivation. General Rules of Learning. New learning requires attention. Learning requires repetition. Learning is about connections. Some learning is effortless; some requires effort. Learning is learning. Our Last Words on the Neurobiology of Learning.3. Working Memory. Working Memory Capacity. How Working Memory Functions. Learning Principle 1: Working Memory Allocation. Rule 1: New Learning Requires Attention. Rule 2: Learning Requires Repetition. Rule 3: Learning is about Connections. Expanding Working Memory Capacity. Working Memory as Consciousness. Basic Rules of Working Memory. Storage Rules. Retrieval Rule.4. Knowledge. Long-Term Memory in the Brain. Storage in Long-term Memory. Retrieval from Long-term Memory. Connection in Long-term Memory. The Location of Knowledge in the Brain. Episodic Memory. Semantic Knowledge. Declarative and Procedural Knowledge. Declarative Knowledge. Building a Chunk. Procedural Knowledge.Building a Procedure: Proceduralization. Automaticity. Building Larger Knowledge Networks. Declarative Networks. Procedural Networks. Situated Knowledge and Transfer. Problem Solving and Critical Thinking. Incidental Learning. Knowledge & Working Memory Interaction: Expanding Capacity. ULM Learning Principle 2: The Prior Knowledge Effect. Basic Knowledge Processes.5. Motivation. Learning Principle 3: Working Memory and Motivation. The Neurobiology of 'Biological' Motivation; Drives. Extensions of Drive Theories. Beyond Drive. Goals. Goal Value. Contingencies: The Experienced Past;the Expected Future. Specific Motivational Expectancies. Self-efficacy. Emotion. Emotional Content of Knowledge. Emotions as Goals. The ULM and Emotion. Interest. Situational Interest. Personal Interest. Interest Is Idiosyncratic. The Hierarchical Structure of Motivation. Motivating Working Memory Allocation.6. How the ULM Fits In. Ability. Heredity. Cognitive Development and Stages. Vygotsky - ZPD; Social Construction. Short-Term Memory. Cognitive load. 'Ah, ha' Moments Involve Special Marking for Later Retrieval. Ordinary Learning Moments Require No special Marking. Savants: Prodigies. Special Memory. Multiple Intelligences. Learning Styles. The Executive. Gender Differences. Primary versus Secondary Learning. History and Background. Our Purpose in This Chapter. Applying the Unified Learning Model.7. Classroom Applications Overview.8. Supporting Motivation. Learning Goals. Belief in Effort. Goal Value and Outcome Expectancies. Self-Efficacy. Interest. Discouraged Terms. Summary. Thoughts on Motivation.9. Efficient Instruction. Cognitive Load. The CORE Lesson Model. Explicit Knowledge is Teachable; Implicit Knowledge Isn't. Optimal 'Difficulty' For New Content. Storage and Retrieval.10. Feedback and Assessment. Assessment. Feedback. New learning requires attention. Learning requires repetition. Learning is about connections. Teaching to the Test. Some Learning is Effortless; Some Requires Effort. Praise versus Encouragement. Scaffold Learning By Responding to Outputs.11. A Focus on Thinking. Content-Specific Thinking. Have Students Anticipate (Expectancy-Driven Methods). Teachers Create Sub-goals (Parse the Intrinsic Load). Remove the Scaffolding. Have Students Imagine Outcomes. Accommodate Cognitive Artifacts. Experts Practice Deliberately. Conceptual Change.12. Encouraging
From the reviews:
"This is an excellent book about how learners learn and behave in a classroom and how this understanding about learning could be put to use by teachers for effective teaching. ... the authors have successfully tied different ideas, concepts, and theories of learning into one model that is easy to understand even for those readers who do not have a background in education. I highly recommend this well-written and engaging book to all teachers, researchers, and students." (Sandhya N. Baviskar, The American Biology Teacher, Vol. 73 (4), April, 2011)
"The writers of The Unified Learning Model (ULM) intend their book to satisfy classroom teachers as well as teaching and learning researchers. The book is divided into chapters within two major sections, developing the model and applying the model. ... This book reinforced for me the value of modeling and practicing problem solving for students. ... It gives the reader a variety of things to contemplate about memory and learning, the most challenging and enjoyable being the ULM itself." (Greg Diersen, The American Biology Teacher, Vol. 73 (4), April, 2011)
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