The Sociocultural Activity of High Stakes Standardised Language Testing (eBook, PDF) - Booth, Dawn Karen
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1. INTRODUCTION.- 2. SOUTH KOREA.- Historical Overview.- Confucian Ideology.- The Development of the Korean Education System.- Present Day Education Fever and Examination Hell.- EFL Education and Testing in Korea.- 3. THE TOEIC.- Description and Evolution of the TOEIC.- An Evaluation of the TOEIC.- Substantive, Generalizibility and Content Aspects.- Generalizibility Aspect - Reliability.- The External Aspect.- The Consequential Aspect .- Summary.- 4. WASHBACK.- Washback in Language Testing.- The Nature and Scope of Washback.- Washback and Impact.- Dimensions of Washback.- Situating Washback within Validity.- Washback Defined.- Review of Empirical Studies.- Washback on Learning Processes: Content and Strategy Use.- Washback on the Product of Learning: Promotion of Language Skills.- Washback on the Product of Learning: Learner Affect.- Washback on Korean Learners.- Washback on the TOEIC.- Shih's Model of Washback on Learning.- Conclusions from Empirical Studies.- 5. LEARNING: A SOCIAL PERSPECTIVE.- Cognitive and Social Traditions in SLA.- A Sociocultural Theory of Mind.- Mediation.- The Zone of Proximal Development.- Learner Agency.- Learner Contributions to Language Learning in Context.- Learner Attributes, Conceptualisations and Affect.- Situated Learner Action.- Wider Community Identity and Participation.- Learner Contributions as a Complex System.- Activity Theory.- Early Development of Activity Theory.- Second and Third Generation Activity Theory.- Principle Concepts Underlying Activity Theory.- Examining Washback through Activity Theory.- Summary.- 6. CASE STUDIES: OVERVIEW.- Many Paths up the TOEIC Mountain.- Participants and Journal Collection.- Direct and Indirect Actions toward the TOEIC.- Further Categorisation of Actions.- Content Focus.- Activity Theory, Learner Action and Washback.- Summary and Next Steps.- 7. STUDENT TEST ACTIVITY: MAJORS OTHER THAN ENGLISH.- Prelude: Qualitative Research Methodology.- Coding and Presenting an Audit Trail.- Peer Checking/Debriefing.- Respondent Feedback.- Transparency in Writing up Case Studies.- Case One: Jessica.- Case Two: Santana.- Case Study Three: Steave.- Comparison of Student Test Activity: Other Majors.- 8. STUDENT TEST ACTIVITY: ENGLISH MAJORS.- Case Study Four: Sunny.- Case Study Five: Tina.- Comparison of Student Test Activity - English Majors.- 9. WASHBACK ACTIVITY: AT THE MICRO LEVEL.- Participant: Individual Test Stakes, Motives and Goals.- Processes: Learner Action in Context.- Motivated Learner Action.- Instructor-led Preparation Classes.- English Learning Communities/Resources.- TOEIC Preparation Materials.- Operations: Situated Learner Action.- Washback on Content.- Washback on Strategy Use.- Washback on Rate and Sequence of Learning.- Products: Outcomes on Learning.- Washback on Degree and Depth of Learning.- Washback on Learner Attitudes.- Summary.- 10. WASHBACK ACTIVITY: AT THE MACRO LEVEL.- TOEIC in the Business Sector.- The Impact of TOEIC: Listening and Reading.- The Impact of TOEIC: Speaking and Writing.- TOEIC in the Tertiary Sector.- Interrelated Stakeholder Interests.- The Central Activity: Test Maker and Test-Taker.- The Community and Division of Labour.- Rules and Interrelated Communities.- 11. EXPANDING THE CONCEPT OF WASHBACK.- Toward a Situated Model of Washback.- Test Taker, Community and Test Complex.- Processes: Learner Action in Context.- Products from Student Test Activity.- Implications.- The Test Makers.- The Wider Community.- Learners and Teachers.- The Research Community.- APPENDICIES