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  • Gebundenes Buch

This book provides a complete coverage of all the essentials of zinc oxide material properties, growth, processing, characterization, and devices in a single volume. In addition, the book treats the recent advances including crystal growth, processing, and doping, and also the device problems and issues that seem to be impeding the commercialization of devices. Edited by highly respected and internationally recognized researchers in the field of zinc oxide, this book is ideal for university students, government, and industrial research and development laboratories engaged in zinc oxide research.…mehr

Produktbeschreibung
This book provides a complete coverage of all the essentials of zinc oxide material properties, growth, processing, characterization, and devices in a single volume. In addition, the book treats the recent advances including crystal growth, processing, and doping, and also the device problems and issues that seem to be impeding the commercialization of devices. Edited by highly respected and internationally recognized researchers in the field of zinc oxide, this book is ideal for university students, government, and industrial research and development laboratories engaged in zinc oxide research.
  • Produktdetails
  • Wiley Materials for Electronic
  • Verlag: John Wiley & Sons / WILEY
  • Seitenzahl: 386
  • Erscheinungstermin: Juni 2011
  • Englisch
  • Abmessung: 249mm x 173mm x 25mm
  • Gewicht: 816g
  • ISBN-13: 9780470519714
  • ISBN-10: 0470519711
  • Artikelnr.: 32733729
Inhaltsangabe
Series Preface xv Preface xvii List of Contributors xxi 1 Fundamental Properties of ZnO 1 T. C. Collins and R. J. Hauenstein 1.1 Introduction 1 1.1.1 Overview 1 1.1.2 Organization of Chapter 2 1.2 Band Structure 2 1.2.1 Valence and Conduction Bands 2 1.3 Optical Properties 5 1.3.1 Free and Bound Excitons 5 1.3.2 Effects of External Magnetic Field on ZnO Excitons 6 1.3.3 Strain Field 8 1.3.4 Spatial Resonance Dispersion 9 1.4 Electrical Properties 10 1.4.1 Intrinsic Electronic Transport Properties 10 1.4.2 n
type Doping and Donor Levels 11 1.4.3 p
type Doping and Dopability 13 1.4.4 Schottky Barriers and Ohmic Contacts 17 1.5 Band Gap Engineering 19 1.5.1 Homovalent Heterostructures 20 1.5.2 Heterovalent Heterostructures 22 1.6 Spintronics 22 1.7 Summary 25 References 25 2 Optical Properties of ZnO 29 D. C. Reynolds, C. W. Litton and T. C. Collins 2.1 Introduction 29 2.2 Free Excitons 29 2.3 Strain Splitting of the G5 and G6 Free Excitons in ZnO 35 2.4 Photoluminescence from the Two Polar Faces of ZnO 36 2.5 Bound
Exciton Complexes in ZnO 38 2.6 Similarities in the Photoluminescence Mechanisms of ZnO and GaN 46 2.7 The Combined Effects of Screening and Band Gap Renormalization on the Energy of Optical Transitions in ZnO and GaN 51 2.8 Closely Spaced Donor
Acceptor Pairs in ZnO 55 2.9 Summary 58 References 58 3 Electrical Transport Properties in Zinc Oxide 61 B. Claflin and D. C. Look 3.1 Introduction 61 3.2 Hall
Effect Analysis 62 3.2.1 Single
Band Conduction 62 3.2.2 Two
Band Mixed Conduction 65 3.2.3 Conducting Surface Layers 66 3.3 Donor States and n
type Doping 66 3.3.1 Native Point Defects
Donors 68 3.3.2 Substitutional Donors 69 3.4 Hydrogen 69 3.5 Acceptor States and p
type Doping 70 3.5.1 Native Point Defects
Acceptors 71 3.5.2 Substitutional Acceptors 72 3.6 Photoconductivity 76 3.7 Summary 78 References 78 4 ZnO Surface Properties and Schottky Contacts 87 Leonard J. Brillson 4.1 Historical Background of Schottky Contacts on ZnO 87 4.1.1 ZnO Surface Effects 88 4.1.2 Early Schottky Barrier Studies 90 4.2 Recent Schottky Barrier Studies 91 4.2.1 Surface Cleaning in Vacuum 91 4.2.2 Surface Cleaning Effects on Impurities and Defects 92 4.3 The Influence of Surface Preparation on Schottky Barriers 93 4.4 The Influence of Defects on Schottky Barriers 97 4.5 The Influence of ZnO Polarity on Schottky Barriers 102 4.6 The Influence of Chemistry 103 4.7 Charge Transport and Extended Metal
ZnO Schottky Barriers 108 4.8 Conclusion 110 Acknowledgements 110 References 110 5 Native Point Defects and Doping in ZnO 113 Anderson Janotti and Chris G. Van de Walle 5.1 Introduction 113 5.2 Theoretical Framework 114 5.3 Native Point Defects 115 5.3.1 Oxygen Vacancies 117 5.3.2 Zinc Interstitials 119 5.3.3 Zinc Antisites 120 5.3.4 Zinc Vacancies 121 5.3.5 Defect Migration 121 5.4 Donor Impurities 125 5.4.1 Aluminum, Gallium and Indium 125 5.4.2 Fluorine 125 5.4.3 Hydrogen 125 5.5 Acceptor Impurities 129 5.5.1 Lithium 129 5.5.2 Copper 129 5.5.3 Nitrogen 129 5.5.4 Phosphorous, Arsenic and Antimony 130 5.5.5 Co
Doping 130 5.6 Isoelectronic Impurities 131 Acknowledgements 131 References 131 6 Spectral Identification of Impurities and Native Defects in ZnO 135 B.K. Meyer, D.M. Hofmann, J. Stehr and A. Hoffmann 6.1 Introduction 135 6.2 Optical Spectroscopy 136 6.2.1 Excitons Bound to Shallow Donors 136 6.2.2 Recombinations Caused by Nitrogen and Arsenic Doping 145 6.3 Magnetic Resonance Investigations 153 6.3.1 Shallow Donors 154 6.3.2 Deep Level Defects 158 6.3.3 Extrinsic Acceptors: Li, Na and N 161 6.3.4 Intrinsic Acceptors 166 References 166 7 Vapor Transport Growth of ZnO Substrates and Homoepitaxy of ZnO Device Layers 171 Gene Cantwell, Jizhi Zhang and J.J. Song 7.1 Introduction 171 7.2 Transport Theory and Comparison with Growth Data 172 7.3 Characterization 175 7.3.1 Crystallinity 175 7.3.2 Purity 176 7.3.3 Electrical 177 7.3.4 Optical 178 7.4 In
situ Doping 180 7.5 ZnO Homoepitaxy 181 7.5.1 Substrate Preparation 182 7.5.2 Homoepitaxial Films on c
plane SCVT ZnO Substrates 183 7.5.3 ZnO Homoepitaxial Films on a
plane SCVT ZnO Substrates 185 7.6 Summary 185 Acknowledgement 186 References 186 8 Growth Mechanisms and Properties of Hydrothermal ZnO 189 M. J. Callahan, Dirk Ehrentraut, M. N. Alexander and Buguo Wang 8.1 Introduction 189 8.2 Overview of Hydrothermal Solution Growth 190 8.3 Thermodynamics of Hydrothermal Growth of ZnO 190 8.3.1 Solubility of ZnO in Various Aqueous Media 190 8.3.2 ZnO Phase Stability in H2O System 191 8.4 Hydrothermal Growth Techniques 194 8.4.1 Hydrothermal Growth of ZnO Powder 194 8.4.2 Hydrothermal Crystal Growth of ZnO Single Crystals 194 8.4.3 Industrial Growth of Large ZnO Crystals 197 8.5 Growth Kinetics of Hydrothermal ZnO 200 8.5.1 Crystallographic Structure of Hydrothermal ZnO 200 8.5.2 Growth Rates of the Crystallographic Facets of Hydrothermal ZnO 200 8.6 Properties of Bulk Hydrothermal ZnO 205 8.6.1 Extended Imperfections (Dislocations, Voids, etc.) and Surface Studies 205 8.6.2 Impurities 208 8.6.3 Electrical Properties 210 8.6.4 Optical Properties 213 8.6.5 Etching and Polishing 215 8.7 Conclusion 217 Acknowledgements 217 References 218 9 Growth and Characterization of GaN/ZnO Heteroepitaxy and ZnO
Based Hybrid Devices 221 Ryoko Shimada and Hadis Morkoç 9.1 Introduction 221 9.2 Growth of GaN/ZnO 222 9.3 Compositional Analysis 230 9.4 Structural Analysis 232 9.5 Surface Studies 235 9.6 Optical Properties 237 9.6.1 Transmission Analysis 237 9.6.2 Cathodoluminescence Analysis 239 9.6.3 Photoluminescence Analysis 242 9.7 Electrical Properties 249 9.8 GaN/ZnO Hybrid Devices 252 9.8.1 Hybrid ZnO/GaN Heterojunction LED 253 9.8.2 ZnO
based Hybrid Microcavity 259 9.9 Conclusions 261 Acknowledgements 262 References 262 10 Room Temperature Stimulated Emission and ZnO
Based Lasers 265 D.M. Bagnall 10.1 Introduction 265 10.2 Emission Mechanisms 266 10.3 Stimulated Emission 267 10.3.1 Bulk ZnO 267 10.3.2 Epitaxial Layers 267 10.3.3 Quantum wells and Superlattices 270 10.3.4 ZnMgO/ZnO Structures 270 10.3.5 ZnO/ZnCdO Structures 272 10.4 Zinc Oxide Lasers 274 10.4.1 Introduction 274 10.4.2 Microstructural Lasers 275 10.4.3 Powder Lasers 278 10.4.4 Nanowire Lasers 279 10.4.5 ZnO Laser Diodes 280 10.5 Conclusions 281 References 282 11 ZnO
Based Ultraviolet Detectors 285 Jian Zhong and Yicheng Lu 11.1 Introduction 285 11.2 Photoconductivity in ZnO 288 11.2.1 Persistent Photoconductivity 293 11.2.2 Negative Photoconductivity 295 11.3 ZnO Film
Based UV Photodetectors 297 11.3.1 Photoconductive UV Detector 297 11.3.2 Schottky Barrier UV Photodetectors 301 11.3.3 Integrated Surface Acoustic Wave and Photoconductive Wireless UV Detectors 305 11.3.4 Photodetectors Using ZnO TFT 314 11.3.5 MgxZn1_xO UV Photodetector 315 11.4 ZnO NW UV Photodetectors 318 11.4.1 Photoconductive Gain in a ZnO NW 318 11.4.2 Noise Characteristics of ZnO NW UV Photodetector 323 11.5 Conclusions 325 Acknowledgements 325 References 326 12 Room
Temperature Stimulated Emission from ZnO Multiple Quantum Wells Grown on Lattice
Matched Substrates 331 Takayuki Makino, Yusaburo Segawa, Masashi Kawasaki and Hideomi Koinuma 12.1 Introduction 331 12.2 Experimental Details 333 12.3 Quantum Confinement Effect of Excitons in QWs 333 12.4 Exciton
Phonon Interaction in QWs 336 12.5 The Localization Mechanism of the Exciton in a QW 337 12.6 Time
Resolved Luminescence in ZnO QWs 341 12.7 Stimulated Emission in MQWs 342 12.8 Summary 346 Acknowledgements 347 References 347 Index 351