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The leading text in the field explains step by step how to writesoftware that responds in real time From power plants to medicine to avionics, the worldincreasingly depends on computer systems that can compute andrespond to various excitations in real time. The Fourth Editionof Real-Time Systems Design and Analysis gives softwaredesigners the knowledge and the tools needed to create real-timesoftware using a holistic, systems-based approach. The text coverscomputer architecture and organization, operating systems, softwareengineering, programming languages, and compiler theory, all fromthe…mehr

Produktbeschreibung
The leading text in the field explains step by step how to writesoftware that responds in real time From power plants to medicine to avionics, the worldincreasingly depends on computer systems that can compute andrespond to various excitations in real time. The Fourth Editionof Real-Time Systems Design and Analysis gives softwaredesigners the knowledge and the tools needed to create real-timesoftware using a holistic, systems-based approach. The text coverscomputer architecture and organization, operating systems, softwareengineering, programming languages, and compiler theory, all fromthe perspective of real-time systems design. The Fourth Edition of this renowned text brings itthoroughly up to date with the latest technological advances andapplications. This fully updated edition includes coverage of thefollowing concepts: * Multidisciplinary design challenges * Time-triggered architectures * Architectural advancements * Automatic code generation * Peripheral interfacing * Life-cycle processes The final chapter of the text offers an expert perspective onthe future of real-time systems and their applications. The text is self-contained, enabling instructors and readers tofocus on the material that is most important to their needs andinterests. Suggestions for additional readings guide readers tomore in-depth discussions on each individual topic. In addition,each chapter features exercises ranging from simple to challengingto help readers progressively build and fine-tune their ability todesign their own real-time software programs. Now fully up to date with the latest technological advances andapplications in the field, Real-Time Systems Design andAnalysis remains the top choice for students and softwareengineers who want to design better and faster real-time systems atminimum cost.

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  • Produktdetails
  • Verlag: John Wiley & Sons
  • Seitenzahl: 584
  • Erscheinungstermin: 24.10.2011
  • Englisch
  • ISBN-13: 9781118136577
  • Artikelnr.: 37337884
Autorenporträt
PHILLIP A. LAPLANTE, PhD, PE, is Professor of SoftwareEngineering at Penn State, where he specializes in software andsystems engineering, project management, and software testing andsecurity. Dr. Laplante spent several years as a software engineerand project manager working on avionics, computer-aided design, andsoftware test systems. He has authored or edited twenty-seven booksand has published more than 200 scholarly articles. SEPPO J. OVASKA, DSc, is Professor of IndustrialElectronics at Aalto University, Finland. He has served as avisiting scholar at Utah State University, Virginia Tech, and theUniversity of Passau, Germany, and has published more than 100articles in peer-reviewed journals. Prior to his academic career,Dr. Ovaska developed control systems for high-rise elevators; thosecontributions led to nine international patents.
Inhaltsangabe
Preface xv Acknowledgments xxi 1 Fundamentals of Real-Time Systems 1 1.1 Concepts and Misconceptions
2 1.1.1 Definitions for Real-Time Systems
2 1.1.2 Usual Misconceptions
14 1.2 Multidisciplinary Design Challenges
15 1.2.1 Influencing Disciplines
16 1.3 Birth and Evolution of Real-Time Systems
16 1.3.1 Diversifying Applications
17 1.3.2 Advancements behind Modern Real-Time Systems
19 1.4 Summary
21 1.5 Exercises
24 References
25 2 Hardware for Real-Time Systems 27 2.1 Basic Processor Architecture
28 2.1.1 Von Neumann Architecture
29 2.1.2 Instruction Processing
30 2.1.3 Input/Output and Interrupt Considerations
33 2.2 Memory Technologies
36 2.2.1 Different Classes of Memory
36 2.2.2 Memory Access and Layout Issues
38 2.2.3 Hierarchical Memory Organization
41 2.3 Architectural Advancements
43 2.3.1 Pipelined Instruction Processing
45 2.3.2 Superscalar and Very Long Instruction Word Architectures
46 2.3.3 Multi-Core Processors
48 2.3.4 Complex Instruction Set versus Reduced Instruction Set
50 2.4 Peripheral Interfacing
52 2.4.1 Interrupt-Driven Input/Output
53 2.4.2 Direct Memory Access
56 2.4.3 Analog and Digital Input/Output
58 2.5 Microprocessor versus Microcontroller
62 2.5.1 Microprocessors
62 2.5.2 Standard Microcontrollers
64 2.5.3 Custom Microcontrollers
66 2.6 Distributed Real-Time Architectures
68 2.6.1 Fieldbus Networks
68 2.6.2 Time-Triggered Architectures
71 2.7 Summary
73 2.8 Exercises
74 References
76 3 Real-Time Operating Systems 79 3.1 From Pseudokernels to Operating Systems
80 3.1.1 Miscellaneous Pseudokernels
82 3.1.2 Interrupt-Only Systems
87 3.1.3 Preemptive Priority Systems
90 3.1.4 Hybrid Scheduling Systems
90 3.1.5 The Task Control Block Model
95 3.2 Theoretical Foundations of Scheduling
97 3.2.1 Scheduling Framework
98 3.2.2 Round-Robin Scheduling
99 3.2.3 Cyclic Code Scheduling
100 3.2.4 Fixed-Priority Scheduling: Rate-Monotonic Approach
102 3.2.5 Dynamic Priority Scheduling: Earliest Deadline First Approach
104 3.3 System Services for Application Programs
106 3.3.1 Linear Buffers
107 3.3.2 Ring Buffers
109 3.3.3 Mailboxes
110 3.3.4 Semaphores
112 3.3.5 Deadlock and Starvation Problems
114 3.3.6 Priority Inversion Problem
118 3.3.7 Timer and Clock Services
122 3.3.8 Application Study: A Real-Time Structure
123 3.4 Memory Management Issues
127 3.4.1 Stack and Task Control Block Management
127 3.4.2 Multiple-Stack Arrangement
128 3.4.3 Memory Management in the Task Control Block Model
129 3.4.4 Swapping
Overlaying
and Paging
130 3.5 Selecting Real-Time Operating Systems
133 3.5.1 Buying versus Building
134 3.5.2 Selection Criteria and a Metric for Commercial Real-Time Operating Systems
135 3.5.3 Case Study: Selecting a Commercial Real-Time Operating System
138 3.5.4 Supplementary Criteria for Multi-Core and Energy-Aware Support
140 3.6 Summary
142 3.7 Exercises
143 References
146 4 Programming Languages for Real-Time Systems 149 4.1 Coding of Real-Time Software
150 4.1.1 Fitness of a Programming Language for Real-Time Applications
151 4.1.2 Coding Standards for Real-Time Software
152 4.2 Assembly Language
154 4.3 Procedural Languages
156 4.3.1 Modularity and Typing Issues
156 4.3.2 Parameter Passing and Dynamic Memory Allocation
157 4.3.3 Exception Handling
159 4.3.4 Cardelli's Metrics and Procedural Languages
161 4.4 Object-Oriented Languages
162 4.4.1 Synchronizing Objects and Garbage Collection
162 4.4.2 Cardelli's Metrics and Object-Oriented Languages
164 4.4.3 Object-Oriented versus Procedural Languages
165 4.5 Overview of Programming Languages
167 4.5.1 Ada
167 4.5.2 C
169 4.5.3 C++
170 4.5.4 C#
171 4.5.5 Java
172 4.5.6 Real-Time Java
174 4.5.7 Special Real-Time Languages
177 4.6 Automatic Code Generation
178 4.6.1 Toward Production-Quality Code
178 4.6.2 Remaining Challenges
180 4.7 Compiler Optimizations of Code
181 4.7.1 Standard Optimization Techniques
182 4.7.2 Additional Optimization Considerations
188 4.8 Summary
192 4.9 Exercises
193 References
195 5 Requirements Engineering Methodologies 197 5.1 Requirements Engineering for Real-Time Systems
198 5.1.1 Requirements Engineering as a Process
198 5.1.2 Standard Requirement Classes
199 5.1.3 Specifi cation of Real-Time Software
201 5.2 Formal Methods in System Specification
202 5.2.1 Limitations of Formal Methods
205 5.2.2 Finite State Machines
205 5.2.3 Statecharts
210 5.2.4 Petri Nets
213 5.3 Semiformal Methods in System Specification
217 5.3.1 Structured Analysis and Structured Design
218 5.3.2 Object-Oriented Analysis and the Unified Modeling Language
221 5.3.3 Recommendations on Specification Approach
224 5.4 The Requirements Document
225 5.4.1 Structuring and Composing Requirements
226 5.4.2 Requirements Validation
228 5.5 Summary
232 5.6 Exercises
233 5.7 Appendix 1: Case Study in Software Requirements Specification
235 5.7.1 Introduction
235 5.7.2 Overall Description
238 5.7.3 Specific Requirements
245 References
265 6 Software Design Approaches 267 6.1 Qualities of Real-Time Software
268 6.1.1 Eight Qualities from Reliability to Verifiability
269 6.2 Software Engineering Principles
275 6.2.1 Seven Principles from Rigor and Formality to Traceability
275 6.2.2 The Design Activity
281 6.3 Procedural Design Approach
284 6.3.1 Parnas Partitioning
284 6.3.2 Structured Design
286 6.3.3 Design in Procedural Form Using Finite State Machines
292 6.4 Object-Oriented Design Approach
293 6.4.1 Advantages of Object Orientation
293 6.4.2 Design Patterns
295 6.4.3 Design Using the Unified Modeling Language
298 6.4.4 Object-Oriented versus Procedural Approaches
301 6.5 Life Cycle Models
302 6.5.1 Waterfall Model
303 6.5.2 V-Model
305 6.5.3 Spiral Model
306 6.5.4 Agile Methodologies
307 6.6 Summary
311 6.7 Exercises
312 6.8 Appendix 1: Case Study in Designing Real-Time Software
314 6.8.1 Introduction
314 6.8.2 Overall Description
315 6.8.3 Design Decomposition
316 6.8.4 Requirements Traceability
371 References
375 7 Performance Analysis Techniques 379 7.1 Real-Time Performance Analysis
380 7.1.1 Theoretical Preliminaries
380 7.1.2 Arguments Related to Parallelization
382 7.1.3 Execution Time Estimation from Program Code
385 7.1.4 Analysis of Polled-Loop and Coroutine Systems
391 7.1.5 Analysis of Round-Robin Systems
392 7.1.6 Analysis of Fixed-Period Systems
394 7.1.7 Analysis of Nonperiodic Systems
396 7.2 Applications of Queuing Theory
398 7.2.1 Single-Server Queue Model
398 7.2.2 Arrival and Processing Rates
400 7.2.3 Buffer Size Calculation
401 7.2.4 Response Time Modeling
402 7.2.5 Other Results from Queuing Theory
403 7.3 Input/Output Performance
405 7.3.1 Buffer Size Calculation for Time-Invariant Bursts
405 7.3.2 Buffer Size Calculation for Time-Variant Bursts
406 7.4 Analysis of Memory Requirements
408 7.4.1 Memory Utilization Analysis
408 7.4.2 Optimizing Memory Usage
410 7.5 Summary
411 7.6 Exercises
413 References
415 8 Additional Considerations for the Practitioner 417 8.1 Metrics in Software Engineering
418 8.1.1 Lines of Source Code
419 8.1.2 Cyclomatic Complexity
420 8.1.3 Halstead's Metrics
421 8.1.4 Function Points
423 8.1.5 Feature Points
427 8.1.6 Metrics for Object-Oriented Software
428 8.1.7 Criticism against Software Metrics
428 8.2 Predictive Cost Modeling
429 8.2.1 Basic COCOMO 81
429 8.2.2 Intermediate and Detailed COCOMO 81
431 8.2.3 COCOMO II
433 8.3 Uncertainty in Real-Time Systems
433 8.3.1 The Three Dimensions of Uncertainty
434 8.3.2 Sources of Uncertainty
435 8.3.3 Identifying Uncertainty
437 8.3.4 Dealing with Uncertainty
438 8.4 Design for Fault Tolerance
438 8.4.1 Spatial Fault-Tolerance
440 8.4.2 Software Black Boxes
443 8.4.3 N-Version Programming
443 8.4.4 Built-in-Test Software
444 8.4.5 Spurious and Missed Interrupts
447 8.5 Software Testing and Systems Integration
447 8.5.1 Testing Techniques
448 8.5.2 Debugging Approaches
454 8.5.3 System-Level Testing
456 8.5.4 Systems Integration
458 8.5.5 Testing Patterns and Exploratory Testing
462 8.6 Performance Optimization Techniques
465 8.6.1 Scaled Numbers for Faster Execution
465 8.6.2 Look-Up Tables for Functions
467 8.6.3 Real-Time Device Drivers
468 8.7 Summary
470 8.8 Exercises
471 References
473 9 Future Visions on Real-Time Systems 477 9.1 Vision: Real-Time Hardware
479 9.1.1 Heterogeneous Soft Multi-Cores
481 9.1.2 Architectural Issues with Individual Soft Cores
483 9.1.3 More Advanced Fieldbus Networks and Simpler Distributed Nodes
484 9.2 Vision: Real-Time Operating Systems
485 9.2.1 One Coordinating System Task and Multiple Isolated Application Tasks
486 9.2.2 Small
Platform Independent Virtual Machines
487 9.3 Vision: Real-Time Programming Languages
488 9.3.1 The UML++ as a Future "Programming Language"
489 9.4 Vision: Real-Time Systems Engineering
491 9.4.1 Automatic Verification of Software
491 9.4.2 Conservative Requirements Engineering
492 9.4.3 Distance Collaboration in Software Projects
492 9.4.4 Drag-and-Drop Systems
493 9.5 Vision: Real-Time Applications
493 9.5.1 Local Networks of Collaborating Real-Time Systems
494 9.5.2 Wide Networks of Collaborating Real-Time Systems
495 9.5.3 Biometric Identification Device with Remote Access
495 9.5.4 Are There Any Threats behind High-Speed Wireless Communications?
497 9.6 Summary
497 9.7 Exercises
499 References
500 Glossary 503 About the Authors 535 Index 537