A Comprehensive Reference for Electrochemical Engineering Theory and Application From chemical and electronics manufacturing, to hybrid vehicles, energy storage, and beyond, electrochemical engineering touches many industries--any many lives--every day. As energy conservation becomes of central importance, so too does the science that helps us reduce consumption, reduce waste, and lessen our impact on the planet. Electrochemical Engineering provides a reference for scientists and engineers working with electrochemical processes, and a rigorous, thorough text for graduate students and…mehr
A Comprehensive Reference for Electrochemical Engineering Theory and Application From chemical and electronics manufacturing, to hybrid vehicles, energy storage, and beyond, electrochemical engineering touches many industries--any many lives--every day. As energy conservation becomes of central importance, so too does the science that helps us reduce consumption, reduce waste, and lessen our impact on the planet. Electrochemical Engineering provides a reference for scientists and engineers working with electrochemical processes, and a rigorous, thorough text for graduate students and upper-division undergraduates. Merging theoretical concepts with widespread application, this book is designed to provide critical knowledge in a real-world context. Beginning with the fundamental principles underpinning the field, the discussion moves into industrial and manufacturing processes that blend central ideas to provide an advanced understanding while explaining observable results. Fully-worked illustrations simplify complex processes, and end-of chapter questions help reinforce essential knowledge. With in-depth coverage of both the practical and theoretical, this book is both a thorough introduction to and a useful reference for the field. Rigorous in depth, yet grounded in relevance, Electrochemical Engineering: * Introduces basic principles from the standpoint of practical application * Explores the kinetics of electrochemical reactions with discussion on thermodynamics, reaction fundamentals, and transport * Covers battery and fuel cell characteristics, mechanisms, and system design * Delves into the design and mechanics of hybrid and electric vehicles, including regenerative braking, start-stop hybrids, and fuel cell systems * Examines electrodeposition, redox-flow batteries, electrolysis, regenerative fuel cells, semiconductors, and other applications of electrochemical engineering principles Overlapping chemical engineering, chemistry, material science, mechanical engineering, and electrical engineering, electrochemical engineering covers a diverse array of phenomena explained by some of the important scientific discoveries of our time. Electrochemical Engineering provides the critical understanding required to work effectively with these processes as they become increasingly central to global sustainability.
THOMAS F. FULLER is Professor of Chemical & Biomolecular Engineering at Georgia Institute of Technology and a Technical Editor for the Journal of the Electrochemical Society, responsible for fuel cells, electrolyzers, and energy conversion.JOHN N. HARB is Professor of Chemical Engineering in the Ira A. Fulton College of Engineering and Technology at Brigham Young University.
Preface Chapter 1 Introduction and Basic Principles (Charles Tobias) 1.1 Electrochemical Cells 1.2 Characterization of Electrochemical Reactions 1.3 Importance of Electrochemical Systems 1.4 Scientific Units, Constants and Conventions 1.5 Faraday's law 1.6 Faradaic efficiency 1.7 Current Density 1.8 Potential and Ohm's law 1.9 Electrochemical Systems: Example General References Problems Chapter 2 Cell Potential and Thermodynamics (W. M. Latimer) 2.1 Half-cell Reactions 2.2 Cell Potential 2.3 Expression for Cell Potential 2.4 Standard Potentials 2.5 Effect of Temperature on Standard Potential 2.6 Simplified Activity Coefficients 2.7 Use of Cell Potentials 2.8 Equilibrium constants 2.9 Pourbaix diagrams 2.10 Cells with a Liquid Junction 2.11 Reference electrodes 2.12 Equilibrium at Electrode Interface 2.13 Potential in Solution due to charge: Debye-Hückel theory 2.14 Activity and Activity Coefficients 2.15 Estimation of Activity Coefficients 2.16 Closure General References Problems Chapter 3 Electrochemical Kinetics (Alexander N. Frumkin) 3.1 Double Layer 3.2 Impact of potential on Reaction Rate 3.3 Use of the Butler-Volmer Kinetic Expression 3.4 Reaction Fundamentals 3.5 Simplified Forms of the Butler-Volmer Equation 3.6 Direct Fitting of the Butler-Volmer Equation 3.7 Influence of Mass Transfer on the Reaction Rate 3.8 Use of Kinetics Expression in Full Cells 3.9 Current Efficiency General References Problems Chapter 4 Transport (Carl Wagner) 4.1 Fick's Law 4.2 Nernst-Planck Equation 4.3 Conservation of Material 4.4 Transference Numbers, Mobilities, and Migration 4.5 Convective Mass Transfer 4.6 Concentration Overpotential 4.7 Current Distribution 4.8 Membrane transport General References Problems Chapter 5 Electrode Structures (John Newman) 5.1 Mathematical Description of Porous Electrodes 5.2 Characterization of Porous Electrodes 5.3 Impact of Porous Electrodes on Transport 5.4 Current Distribution in Porous Electrodes 5.5 The Gas-Liquid Interface in Porous Electrodes 5.6 Three Phase Electrodes 5.7 Electrode Configurations General References Problems Chapter 6 Electro-analytical Methods and Analysis of Electrochemical Systems (Jaroslav Heyrovsk?) 6.1 Electrochemical Cells, Instrumentation and Some Practical Issues 6.2 Overview 6.3 Step change in Potential or Current for a semi-infinite planar electrode in a stagnant electrolyte 6.4 Electrode Kinetics and Double Layer Charging 6.5 Cyclic Voltammetry 6.6 Stripping Analysis 6.7 Electrochemical Impedance 6.8 Rotating Disk Electrode 6.9 iR Compensation 6.10 Micro-electrodes General References Problems Chapter 7 Battery Fundamentals (J. B. Goodenough) 7.1 Components of a Cell 7.2 Classification of Batteries and Cell Chemistries 7.3 Theoretical Capacity and State of Charge 7.4 Cell Characteristics and Electrochemical Performance 7.5 Ragone Plots 7.6 Heat Generation 7.7 Efficiency of Secondary Cells 7.8 Charge Retention and Self Discharge 7.9 Capacity Fade in Secondary Cells General References Problems Chapter 8 Battery Applications Cell and Battery Pack Design (Esther Takeuchi) 8.1 Introduction to Battery Design 8.2 Battery Layout Using a Specific Cell Design 8.3 Scaling of Cells to Adjust Capacity 8.4 Electrode and Cell Design to Achieve Rate Capability 8.5 Cell Construction 8.6 Charging of Batteries 8.7 Use of Resistance to Characterize Battery Performance 8.8 Battery Management 8.9 Thermal Management Systems 8.10 Mechanical Considerations General References Problems Chapter 9 Fuel Cell Fundamentals (Supramaniam Srinivasan) 9.1 Introduction 9.2 Types of Fuel Cells Classified by Electrolytes 9.3 Current Voltage Characteristics and Polarizations 9.4 Effect of Operating Conditions and Maximum Power 9.5 Electrode Structure 9.6 Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells 9.7 Solid Oxide Fuel Cells General References Problems Chapter 10 Fuel Cell Stack and System Design and Applications (Francis Bacon) 10.1 Introduction and Overview of Systems Analysis 10.2 Basic Stack Design Concepts 10.3 Cell Stack Configurations 10.4 Basic Construction and Components 10.5 Utilization of Fuel and Oxidant 10.6 Flow Field Design 10.7 Water and Thermal Management 10.8 Structural-Mechanical Considerations 10.9 Case Study General References Problems Chapter 11 Electrochemical Double Layer Capacitors (Brian E. Conway) 11.1 Capacitor Introduction 11.2 Electrical Double Layer Capacitance 11.3 Current Voltage Relationship for Capacitors 11.4 Porous EDLC Electrodes 11.5 Impedance Analysis of EDLCs 11.6 Full Cell EDLC Analysis 11.7 Power and Energy Capabilities 11.8 Cell design, practical operation and electrochemical capacitor performance 11.9 Pseudo-capacitance General References Problems Chapter 12 Energy Storage and Conversion for Hybrid and Electric Vehicles (Ferdinand Porsche) 12.1 Why Electric and Hybrid-electric Systems 12.2 Driving Schedules and Power Demand in Vehicles 12.3 Regenerative Braking 12.4 Battery Electric Vehicle 12.5 Hybrid Vehicle Architectures 12.6 Start-stop Hybrid 12.7 Batteries for Full Hybrid-Electric Vehicles 12.8 Fuel-cell Hybrid Systems for Vehicles General References Problems Appendix 12A Primer on Vehicle Dynamics Chapter 13 Electro-deposition (Richard Alkire) 13.1 Overview 13.2 Faraday's Law and Deposit Thickness 13.3 Electrodeposition Fundamentals 13.4 Formation of Stable Nuclei 13.5 Nucleation Rates 13.6 Growth of Nuclei 13.7 Deposit Morphology 13.8 Additives 13.9 Impact of Current Distribution 13.10 Impact of Side Reactions 13.11 Resistive Substrates General References Problems Chapter 14 Electrolysis, Redox-flow batteries, and Regenerative Fuel Cells (Fumio Hine) 14.1 Overview of Industrial Electrolysis 14.2 Performance Measures 14.3 Voltage Losses and the Polarization Curve 14.4 Design of Electrochemical Reactors for Industrial Applications 14.5 Example of Industrial Electrolytic Processes 14.6 Thermal Management and Cell Operation 14.7 Electrolytic Processes for a Sustainable Future 14.8 Redox flow batteries General References Problems Chapter 15 Semiconductors Electrodes and Photoelectrochemical Cells (Heinz Gerischer) 15.1 Semiconductor Basics 15.2 Energy Scales 15.3 Semiconductor/Electrolyte Interface 15.4 Current Flow in the Dark 15.5 Light Absorption 15.6 Photoelectrochemical Effects 15.7 Open-circuit Voltage for Illuminated Electrodes 15.8 Photoelectrochemical Cells General References Problems Chapter 16 Corrosion (Ulick R. Evans) 16.1 Corrosion Fundamentals 16.2 Thermodynamics of Corrosion Systems 16.3 Corrosion Rate for Uniform Corrosion 16.4 Localized Corrosion 16.5 Corrosion Protection General References Problems Appendices A Electrochemical Reactions and Standard Potentials B Fundamental Constants C Thermodynamic Data D Mechanics of Materials Subject Index
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