Essentials of Carbohydrate Chemistry - Robyt, John F.
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Carbohydrates are the most widely distributed naturally-occurring organic compounds on Earth. They make up much of our food, clothing and shelter, and are as vital to national economies as they are to our diet. This book is the first broad treatment of carbohydrate chemistry in many years, and presents the structures, reactions, modifications, and properties of carbohydrates. Woven throughout the text are discussions of biological properties of carbohydrates, their industrial applications, and the history of the field of carbohydrate chemistry. Written for students as well as practicing…mehr

Produktbeschreibung
Carbohydrates are the most widely distributed naturally-occurring organic compounds on Earth. They make up much of our food, clothing and shelter, and are as vital to national economies as they are to our diet. This book is the first broad treatment of carbohydrate chemistry in many years, and presents the structures, reactions, modifications, and properties of carbohydrates. Woven throughout the text are discussions of biological properties of carbohydrates, their industrial applications, and the history of the field of carbohydrate chemistry. Written for students as well as practicing scientists, this text/reference will be of interest to a wide range of disciplines influenced by carbohydrates: biochemistry, chemistry, food and nutrition, microbiology, pharmacology, and medicine.
  • Produktdetails
  • Springer Advanced Texts in Chemistry
  • Verlag: Springer, Berlin
  • 1998
  • Seitenzahl: 420
  • Erscheinungstermin: 19. Dezember 1997
  • Englisch
  • Abmessung: 242mm x 162mm x 24mm
  • Gewicht: 715g
  • ISBN-13: 9780387949512
  • ISBN-10: 0387949518
  • Artikelnr.: 09238810
Inhaltsangabe
1 Beginnings.- 1.1 Carbohydrates and Their Involvement in Life Processes.- 1.2 The Nature of Carbohydrates.- 1.3 Occurrence of Carbohydrates.- 1.4 Asymmetry and the Structures of Carbohydrates.- 1.5 Remembering the Structures of Carbohydrates.- 1.6 Derived Carbohydrate Structures.- a. Sugar Alcohols.- b. Sugar Acids.- c. Deoxy Sugars.- d. Amino Sugars.- e. Sugar Phosphates.- f. Condensed Sugar Products.- 1.7 Literature Cited.- 2 Developments.- 2.1 Carbohydrates in the History and Development of Human Culture.- 2.2 Development of Carbohydrate Chemistry.- a. Chemical Properties of Carbohydrates, 1860-1880.- b. Fischer's Demonstration of the Structures of Glucose, Mannose, Arabinose, and Fructose.- 2.3 Cyclic Structures for the Carbohydrates.- 2.4 Naming the Anomeric Forms of Carbohydrates.- 2.5 Determination of the Size of Carbohydrate Rings.- 2.6 Conformational Structures of Cyclic Sugars.- 2.7 The Literature of Carbohydrate Chemistry.- 2.8 Chronological Summary of the Uses of Carbohydrates by Humans and the Development of Carbohydrate Chemistry.- 2.9 Specific Terms and Concepts Used in Carbohydrate Chemistry.- 2.10 Literature Cited.- 2.11 References for Further Study.- 3 Transformations.- 3.1 Mutarotation.- 3.2 Reactions of Carbohydrates with Strong Alkali.- 3.3 Alkaline Dehydration, Fragmentation, and Oxidation Reactions of Carbohydrates.- 3.4 Reactions of Carbohydrates with Strong Acid, and the Qualitative and Quantitative Determination of Carbohydrates.- 3.5 Reducing Reactions of Carbohydrates.- 3.6 Reactions of Hemiacetals or Hemiketals with Alcohols.- 3.7 Formation of Glycosidic Linkages to Give Di-, Tri-, and Oligosaccharides.- 3.8 Literature Cited.- 3.9 References for Further Study.- 4 Modifications.- 4.1 Formation of Carboxylic Acid Esters.- 4.2 Formation of Sulfonic Acid Esters.- 4.3 Formation of Ethers.- a. Methyl Ethers.- b. Trityl Ethers.- c. Benzyl Ethers.- d. Trialkylsilyl Ethers.- 4.4 Formation of Acetals and Ketals.- 4.5 Modifications at C-1.- a. Reduction of Aldehyde and Ketone Carbonyls.- b. Reduction of Thioacetals and the Protection of C-1.- c. Oxidation of C-1.- d. Chain Elongation.- e. Chain-Length Reduction.- f. Substitution at C-1, the Reducing Carbon.- g. Formation of Glycosides.- h. Formation of Glycosidic Linkages between Monosaccharide Residues.- 4.6 Modifications at C-2.- 4.7 Modifications at C-3.- 4.8 Modifications at C-4.- 4.9 Modifications at C-5 and Substitution for the Ring Oxygen.- 4.10 Modifications of C-6 in Hexopyranoses.- 4.11 Summary of the Strategies Presented for the Chemical Modification of Carbohydrates.- 4.12 Literature Cited.- 4.13 References for Further Study.- 5 Sweetness.- 5.1 The Sweet Taste of Sugars and the Development of the Sweet-Taste Hypothesis.- 5.2 Naturally Occurring Sweet Glycosides.- 5.3 Synthesis of Supersweet Sucroses.- 5.4 Literature Cited.- 5.5 References for Further Study.- 6 Polysaccharides I:Structure and Function.- 6.1 Introduction: Structure and Classification of Polysaccharides.- 6.2 Plant Polysaccharides.- a. Starch.- b. Cellulose.- c. Hemicelluloses.- d. Pectins.- e. Exudate Gums.- f. Fructans.- g. Seaweed Polysaccharides.- h. Dietary Fibers.- 6.3 Animal Polysaccharides.- a. Glycogen.- b. Glycosaminoglycans.- c. Chitin.- 6.4 Microbial Polysaccharides.- a. Murein.- b. Dextrans and Related Polysaccharides: Mutan and Alternan.- c. Pullulan.- d. Bacterial Fructans.- e. Xanthan.- f. Bacterial Gels.- g. Pneumococcal Capsule Polysaccharides.- h.SalmonellaO-Antigen Polysaccharides.- i. Capsular Polysaccharides of Other Gram-Negative Bacteria.- 6.5 Teichoic Acids.- 6.6 Simplified Representation of Oligosaccharide and Polysaccharide Structures.- 6.7 Literature Cited.- 6.8 References for Further Study.- 7 Polysaccharides II:Chemical Modificationsand Their Applications.- 7.1 Introduction.- 7.2 Formation of Polysaccharide Esters.- 7.3 Formation of Polysaccharide Ethers.- 7.4 Formation of Cross-linked Polysaccharide Ethers.- 7.5 Polysaccharide Phosphates.- 7.6 Polysac