The Neurobiological Basis of Memory and Behavior - Rahmann, Hinrich; Rahmann, Mathilde
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Of all the areas of biological science, there is, perhaps, none that has experienced in recent decades so great an increase in findings as neurobiology, the discipline that concerns memory in all of its myriad aspects. The notion of exploring memory, that capacity to store and recall individual experience, has received attention increasingly in our society. Of course, animals can exhibit astounding powers of memory, but memory is of paramount importance to human beings due to the significant role it plays in the transmission of our cultural traditions. It is tradition, after all, that ensures…mehr

Produktbeschreibung
Of all the areas of biological science, there is, perhaps, none that has experienced in recent decades so great an increase in findings as neurobiology, the discipline that concerns memory in all of its myriad aspects. The notion of exploring memory, that capacity to store and recall individual experience, has received attention increasingly in our society. Of course, animals can exhibit astounding powers of memory, but memory is of paramount importance to human beings due to the significant role it plays in the transmission of our cultural traditions. It is tradition, after all, that ensures the passing on of qualities established by lineage, a continuous link from generation to generation, between past and present. And it is tradition that inspires bodies of thought (knowledge and customs, for example) to be handed down by a multiplicity of information bearing devices (i. e. , word, writing, picture, electronic data carriers). The objective of this book is to inform the reader in one clear volume of the groundwork which has been established in memory research from the diverse disciplines of neurobiology. It is intended, primarily, for students of medicine, zoology, biology, psychology and psychiatry, but will certainly prove to be a valuable resource to others with a healthy interest in the area.
  • Produktdetails
  • Verlag: Springer, Berlin
  • Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 1992
  • Seitenzahl: 308
  • Erscheinungstermin: 26. September 2011
  • Englisch
  • Abmessung: 254mm x 178mm x 16mm
  • Gewicht: 581g
  • ISBN-13: 9781461276623
  • ISBN-10: 1461276624
  • Artikelnr.: 36115107
Inhaltsangabe
1 The Cellular Basis of Memory.- 1.1 Nerve Cells (Neurons).- 1.1.1 Neuron Theory.- 1.1.2 Morphology of Nerve Cells.- 1.1.3 Fine Structure of Nerve Cells.- 1.2 Glial Cells and Nerve Sheaths.- 1.2.1 Macro- or Astroglia.- 1.2.2 Oligodendroglia.- 1.2.3 Meso- or Microglia.- 1.2.4 Neural Sheaths.- 2 Development of the Nervous System in Vertebrates.- 2.1 Morphogenetic Aspects of the Formation of Neuronal Structure.- 2.1.1 Induction of Neural Plate and Neural Crest.- 2.1.2 Multiplication of Nerve Cells.- 2.1.3 Migration of Nerve Cells.- 2.1.4 Formation of Identifiable Groups.- 2.1.5 Differentiation of Nerve Cells.- 2.1.6 Elimination of Surplus Matter.- 2.2 Cellular and Molecular Aspects of Neuronal Differentiation.- 2.2.1 Nerve Fiber Growth Through Neurobiotaxis.- 2.2.2 Nerve Fiber Growth Through Galvanotropism.- 2.2.3 Nerve Fiber Growth Through Chemoaffinity.- 3 Functional Morphology of the Nervous System in Vertebrates.- 3.1 Basic Structure of the Nervous System in Vertebrates.- 3.2 The Central Nervous System.- 3.2.1 Phylogenetic Aspects.- 3.2.2 Comparative Overview of the Functional Morphology of the Major Sections of the Human CNS.- 3.3 Vegetative Nervous System (Sympathetic and Parasympathetic).- 3.4 Derivatives of the Placodes.- 3.5 Nonneuronal Structures in the Nervous System.- 3.5.1 Neuronal Sheaths.- 3.5.2 Ependyma and Circumventricular Organs.- 3.5.3 Meninges.- 3.5.4 Blood Vessel Networks (Plexus Choroideus).- 3.5.5 Cerebrospinal Fluid.- 4 Evolution and Architecture of the Nervous System in Invertebrates.- 4.1 Evolution of Nerve Cells: General Remarks.- 4.2 Organization of the Nervous System in Invertebrates.- 5 Principles of Circuitry in Neurobiological Information Processing.- 5.1 Neuronal Circuitry.- 5.2 Reflex Circuitry.- 5.3 Examples of Central Nervous Circuitry Systems.- 5.3.1 Retina.- 5.3.2 Cerebellum.- 5.3.3 Hippocampus.- 5.3.4 Neocortex.- 5.4 Outlook.- 6 Electrophysiological Aspects of Information Processing.- 6.1 Resting Potential of Membranes.- 6.1.1 General Remarks.- 6.1.2 K+-Ion Equilibrium Potential as Evidenced in Glial Cells.- 6.1.3 Ion Equilibrium Potential for K+ and Na+.- 6.1.4 The Significance of Cl- for the Resting Potential.- 6.1.5 Quantifying Membrane Potential: The Goldman Equation.- 6.1.6 Membrane Properties and Voltage-Dependent Ion Channels.- 6.2 Action Potential.- 6.2.1 Action Potential Defined.- 6.2.2 Membrane Currents and Ion Shifts During Action Potential.- 6.2.3 Conducted Action Potential.- 6.2.4 Subthreshold Potentials.- 6.2.5 Impulse Generation and Conduction of the Action Potential Within the Nerve Cell.- 6.2.6 Impulse Conduction in Unmyelinated Fibers.- 6.2.7 Impulse Conduction in Myelinated Fibers (Myelinated Axons).- 6.3 Transmission of Impulses in the Synapses.- 6.3.1 General Aspects of Synaptic Impulse Transmission.- 6.3.2 Electrical Synapses.- 6.3.3 Chemical Synapses.- 6.3.4 Interneuronal Transmission.- 6.3.5 Plastic Electrical Response Behavior of Neurons.- 6.4 The Electroencephalogram (EEG) and Reaction Potential.- 6.4.1 The Electroencephalogram.- 6.4.2 Reaction Potential.- 7 Chemical Aspects of Neuronal Information Transmission in Synapses.- 7.1 Molecular Basis of Synaptic Information Transmission.- 7.1.1 Synaptic Membranes.- 7.1.2 Synaptic Vesicles.- 7.1.3 Synaptic Transmitter Substances (Neurotransmitters and Neuropeptides).- 7.2 Calcium and Neuronal Functions.- 8 Modulation of Neuronal Information Transmission.- 8.1 General Aspects of Neuromodulation.- 8.2 Significance of Gangliosides as Neuromodulators.- 8.2.1 Physiological Adaptive Capacity of Brain Gangliosides.- 8.2.2 Brain Gangliosides and Bioelectrical Activity of the Nervous System.- 8.2.3 Physicochemical Adaptive Capacity of Ca2+-Ganglioside Interactions for the Simulation of Membrane Events.- 8.2.4 Functional Model of the Neuromodulatory Effect of Ca2+ -Ganglioside Interactions in Synaptic Transmission.- 9 Neuronal Plasticity.- 9.1 Neuronal Transport.- 9.1.1 Slow Neuronal Transport.- 9.1.2 Rapid Neuronal Transport.-

1 The Cellular Basis of Memory.- 1.1 Nerve Cells (Neurons).- 1.1.1 Neuron Theory.- 1.1.2 Morphology of Nerve Cells.- 1.1.3 Fine Structure of Nerve Cells.- 1.2 Glial Cells and Nerve Sheaths.- 1.2.1 Macro- or Astroglia.- 1.2.2 Oligodendroglia.- 1.2.3 Meso- or Microglia.- 1.2.4 Neural Sheaths.- 2 Development of the Nervous System in Vertebrates.- 2.1 Morphogenetic Aspects of the Formation of Neuronal Structure.- 2.1.1 Induction of Neural Plate and Neural Crest.- 2.1.2 Multiplication of Nerve Cells.- 2.1.3 Migration of Nerve Cells.- 2.1.4 Formation of Identifiable Groups.- 2.1.5 Differentiation of Nerve Cells.- 2.1.6 Elimination of Surplus Matter.- 2.2 Cellular and Molecular Aspects of Neuronal Differentiation.- 2.2.1 Nerve Fiber Growth Through Neurobiotaxis.- 2.2.2 Nerve Fiber Growth Through Galvanotropism.- 2.2.3 Nerve Fiber Growth Through Chemoaffinity.- 3 Functional Morphology of the Nervous System in Vertebrates.- 3.1 Basic Structure of the Nervous System in Vertebrates.- 3.2 The Central Nervous System.- 3.2.1 Phylogenetic Aspects.- 3.2.2 Comparative Overview of the Functional Morphology of the Major Sections of the Human CNS.- 3.3 Vegetative Nervous System (Sympathetic and Parasympathetic).- 3.4 Derivatives of the Placodes.- 3.5 Nonneuronal Structures in the Nervous System.- 3.5.1 Neuronal Sheaths.- 3.5.2 Ependyma and Circumventricular Organs.- 3.5.3 Meninges.- 3.5.4 Blood Vessel Networks (Plexus Choroideus).- 3.5.5 Cerebrospinal Fluid.- 4 Evolution and Architecture of the Nervous System in Invertebrates.- 4.1 Evolution of Nerve Cells: General Remarks.- 4.2 Organization of the Nervous System in Invertebrates.- 5 Principles of Circuitry in Neurobiological Information Processing.- 5.1 Neuronal Circuitry.- 5.2 Reflex Circuitry.- 5.3 Examples of Central Nervous Circuitry Systems.- 5.3.1 Retina.- 5.3.2 Cerebellum.- 5.3.3 Hippocampus.- 5.3.4 Neocortex.- 5.4 Outlook.- 6 Electrophysiological Aspects of Information Processing.- 6.1 Resting Potential of Membranes.- 6.1.1 General Remarks.- 6.1.2 K+-Ion Equilibrium Potential as Evidenced in Glial Cells.- 6.1.3 Ion Equilibrium Potential for K+ and Na+.- 6.1.4 The Significance of Cl- for the Resting Potential.- 6.1.5 Quantifying Membrane Potential: The Goldman Equation.- 6.1.6 Membrane Properties and Voltage-Dependent Ion Channels.- 6.2 Action Potential.- 6.2.1 Action Potential Defined.- 6.2.2 Membrane Currents and Ion Shifts During Action Potential.- 6.2.3 Conducted Action Potential.- 6.2.4 Subthreshold Potentials.- 6.2.5 Impulse Generation and Conduction of the Action Potential Within the Nerve Cell.- 6.2.6 Impulse Conduction in Unmyelinated Fibers.- 6.2.7 Impulse Conduction in Myelinated Fibers (Myelinated Axons).- 6.3 Transmission of Impulses in the Synapses.- 6.3.1 General Aspects of Synaptic Impulse Transmission.- 6.3.2 Electrical Synapses.- 6.3.3 Chemical Synapses.- 6.3.4 Interneuronal Transmission.- 6.3.5 Plastic Electrical Response Behavior of Neurons.- 6.4 The Electroencephalogram (EEG) and Reaction Potential.- 6.4.1 The Electroencephalogram.- 6.4.2 Reaction Potential.- 7 Chemical Aspects of Neuronal Information Transmission in Synapses.- 7.1 Molecular Basis of Synaptic Information Transmission.- 7.1.1 Synaptic Membranes.- 7.1.2 Synaptic Vesicles.- 7.1.3 Synaptic Transmitter Substances (Neurotransmitters and Neuropeptides).- 7.2 Calcium and Neuronal Functions.- 8 Modulation of Neuronal Information Transmission.- 8.1 General Aspects of Neuromodulation.- 8.2 Significance of Gangliosides as Neuromodulators.- 8.2.1 Physiological Adaptive Capacity of Brain Gangliosides.- 8.2.2 Brain Gangliosides and Bioelectrical Activity of the Nervous System.- 8.2.3 Physicochemical Adaptive Capacity of Ca2+-Ganglioside Interactions for the Simulation of Membrane Events.- 8.2.4 Functional Model of the Neuromodulatory Effect of Ca2+ -Ganglioside Interactions in Synaptic Transmission.- 9 Neuronal Plasticity.- 9.1 Neuronal Transport.- 9.1.1 Slow Neuronal Transport.- 9.1.2 Rapid Neuronal Transport.- 9.1.3 Retrograde Transport.- 9.1.4 Transneuronal Transport.- 9.1.5 Transmembrane Transport.- 9.1.6 Significance of Neuronal Transport.- 9.2 Synaptic Plasticity.- 9.2.1 Selective Stabilization of Synapses as Mechanisms for the Specialized Formation of Neuronal Networks During Early Development.- 9.2.2 Function-Dependent Structural Formation of euronal Networks During Postnatal Development and in the Differentiated Nervous System.- 9.2.3 Synaptic Plasticity in the Electrical Response Behavior of Neurons.- 9.2.4 Structural and Biochemical Aspects of Synaptic Plasticity.- 9.3 Degeneration in the Nervous System.- 9.4 Regeneration in the Nervous System.- 10 Behavioral-Physiological Basis of Memory.- 10.1 Phenomenology of Memory.- 10.2 Innate Behavior.- 10.2.1 Taxes.- 10.2.2 Reflexes.- 10.2.3 Instincts.- 10.3 Acquired Behavior.- 10.3.1 Learning Processes.- 10.3.2 Creativity.- 10.3.3 Motivation and Emotion.- 10.3.4 Social Behavior.- 11 Neurobiological Models of Memory.- 11.1 Historical Overview: Early Models of Memory Formation.- 11.2 Memory Formation Through Molecular Facilitation in Synapses.- 11.2.1 The Aplysia Model of Memory.- 11.2.2 The Protein Kinase C Model.- 11.2.3 The Hypothesis of the Significance of Extracellular Proteins for Learning and Memory Formation.- 11.2.4 The Hippocampus Memory Model.- 11.2.5 A Brief Evaluation of Earlier Molecular Models of Memory.- 11.2.6 Memory Formation Through Molecular Facilitation in Synapses with Gangliosides.- 11.3 Aspects of the Formation of a Neuronal Information Processing System.- 11.4 Localizing Memory.