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In an effort to implement conservation measures farmers have used a variety of production methods including reduced or zero tillage. With the implementation of these methods there has been an increase in the use of small grain and legume cover crops and their residues. One benefit of these production methods has been early season weed control. Presently the most promising cover crops and their residues for annual broadleaf weed control in temperate regions of the world are the small grains such as wheat and rye. The literature suggests that a variety of mechanisms are involved in regulating…mehr

Produktbeschreibung
In an effort to implement conservation measures farmers have used a variety of production methods including reduced or zero tillage. With the implementation of these methods there has been an increase in the use of small grain and legume cover crops and their residues. One benefit of these production methods has been early season weed control. Presently the most promising cover crops and their residues for annual broadleaf weed control in temperate regions of the world are the small grains such as wheat and rye. The literature suggests that a variety of mechanisms are involved in regulating weed seedling emergence, among them the allelopathic effects of phenolic acids. This book addresses the following questions: How likely are the necessary phenolic acid concentrations and environmental conditions present in wheat no-till cropping systems for inhibition of annual broadleaf weed seedling emergence? and Do phenolic acids have a dominant role in regulating annual broadleaf weed seedling emergence or are phenolic acids just one component of a larger promoter/modifier/inhibitor complex in wheat no-till cropping systems? The book has four chapters covering: 1. allelopathic plant-plant interactions, 2. laboratory experiments, 3. field and associated laboratory experiments, and 4. conclusions and suggested future research. There are several things that are unique about this book: a. The format is that of a research paper published in scientific journals. b. It differs from the journal format in that logic, reasons, and justifications for various procedures are provided. c. The Scientific Method and its approach to research are emphasized. For example, if-then hypotheses and cons and pros are provided so that readers can draw their own conclusions. and d. Although a broad range of literature is included, this book is a retrospective analysis of some 20 plus years of research on plant-plant allelopathic interactions at North Carolina State University.
  • Produktdetails
  • Verlag: Springer Netherlands
  • Artikelnr. des Verlages: 80029267
  • Edition
  • Erscheinungstermin: 26. Februar 2011
  • Englisch
  • Abmessung: 244mm x 163mm x 23mm
  • Gewicht: 500g
  • ISBN-13: 9789400706828
  • ISBN-10: 9400706820
  • Artikelnr.: 32360469
Inhaltsangabe
List of Illustrations; List of Tables; Abbreviations; Dedication; Preface; References; AcknowledgementsChapter 1. Plant-plant Allelopathic Interactions; 1.1 ReferencesChapter 2. Plant-plant Allelopathic Interactions. Phase I: The Laboratory; 2.1. Criteria for Model Systems; 2.2 Materials, Methods, and Commentary; 2.2.1 General Bioassay Procedures; 2.2.2 Bioassay Species; 2.2.3 Soil Substrates; 2.2.4 Seedling Containers; 2.2.5 Sorption and Microbial Utilization Studies; 2.2.6 Phenolic Acids; 2.2.7 Phenolic Acid Solutions; 2.2.8 Solution Additions to Seedling Systems; 2.2.9 Phenolic Acid Extraction Procedures; 2.2.10 Quantification of Individual Phenolic Acids; 2.2.11 Rhizosphere and Soil Microbial Populations; 2.2.12 Measurements; 2.2.13 Data Analyses; 2.3 Research Objectives; 2.4 Results and Discussion; 2.4.1 Effects and Duration of Effects of Phenolic Acids on Seedlings in Nutrient Culture; 2.4.2 Effects of Seedlings, Mixtures of Phenolic Acids, and Microbes on Phenolic Acid Concentrations in Nutrient Culture; 2.4.3 Interactions of Phenolic Acids with Sterile and Non-sterile Soils; 2.4.4 Effects of Phenolic Acids on Bulk-soil and Rhizosphere Microbial Populations; 2.4.5 Effects and Duration of Effects of Phenolic Acids on Seedlings in Soil Culture; 2.4.6 Relationships Between Phenolic Acid-utilizing Microbes and Phenolic Acid Inhibition; 2.4.7 Effects of Seedling-microbe-soil Systems on Available Concentrations of Phenolic Acids in Soil Solutions; 2.4.8 Comparison of the Effects of Phenolic Acids on Seedlings in Nutrient and Soil Culture; 2.4.9 Effects of Phenolic Acids at Various Life Stages; 2.5 Summary of Major Points for Model Systems; 2.5.1 Seedlings; 2.5.2 Microbes; 2.5.3 Phenolic Acids; 2.6 Relevance of Model Systems to Field Studies; 2.6.1 Promoters, Modifiers, and Inhibitors; 2.7ReferencesChapter 3: Plant-plant Allelopathic Interactions. Phase II: Field/Laboratory Experiments; 3.1 Annual Broadleaf Weed Control in No-till Systems; 3.2 Material, Methods, and Commentary; 3.2.1 Soil and Plant Tissue/Residue Analyses; 3.2.2 Laboratory Bioassays; 3.2.3 Field Studies; 3.2.4 Data Analyses; 3.3 Research Objectives; 3.4 Results and Discussion; 3.4.1 Characterize the Phenolic Acids in Soils of No-till and Conventional-till Systems and to Establish Correlations Between Easily Obtained Soil Characteristics and Phenolic Acids in Soils; 3.4.2 Determine if Soil Extracts could be Used Directly in Laboratory Bioassays for the Detection of Allelopathic Activity; 3.4.3 Characterize How Cover Crop Residues in No-till Systems Affect Early Emergence of Broadleaf Weeds and to Establish and Characterize Potential Relationships Between Early Broadleaf Weed Seedling Emergence and the Physical and Chemical Environments Resulting from the Presence of Cover Crop Residues; 3.4.4 Characterize Cover Crops and Cover Crop Residues and How These May Potentially Modify the Soil Environment; 3.4.5 Determine Under Controlled Conditions How Effects of Shoot Cover Crop Residues Taken from the Field Change with Time After Desiccation and How Such Effects are Modified by Temperature, Moisture, and Nitrogen Levels; 3.4.6 Determine the Respective Importance of Shoot and Root Residues in Regulating Early Broadleaf Weed Seedling Emergence;