This volume comprises the proceedings of the International Workshop on Eco logical Goal Functions, held at the Schleswig-Holstein Cultural Center of Salzau, August 30 -September 4, 1996. The conference - first in a series - intended to be convened at Salzau at 1 -2 year intervals to address various aspects of theo retical and application-oriented ecology, was initiated, organized and carried out under the auspices of the Ecology Center of the Kiel University. It featured key note addresses, invited lectures, submitted papers, and posters. 32 contributions written by authors from eight…mehr
This volume comprises the proceedings of the International Workshop on Eco logical Goal Functions, held at the Schleswig-Holstein Cultural Center of Salzau, August 30 -September 4, 1996. The conference - first in a series - intended to be convened at Salzau at 1 -2 year intervals to address various aspects of theo retical and application-oriented ecology, was initiated, organized and carried out under the auspices of the Ecology Center of the Kiel University. It featured key note addresses, invited lectures, submitted papers, and posters. 32 contributions written by authors from eight countries, were selected to be presented in this book. From the very rich discussions of the workshop, some general characteristics emerged which might become important for a deeper understanding of the nature of evolving systems or, in other words, systems with a history, described by variables with a high degree of interdependence. These characteristics include the following: Speaking of 'goal functions' is a convenient 'fa~on de parler', since a logical analysis of the formal structure of teleological and causal explanations shows that both are analogous with regard to the inherent structural typology and the basic mode of explanation. Teleological interpretations introduce motives or objectives of actors into the set of 'antecedens' conditions relevant for system evolution, and are consequently a subset of causal interpretations.
Prof. Dr. Felix Müller ist Vizedirektor am Bernischen Historischen Museum und Leiter der Abteilung für Ur- und Frühgeschichte.
1 Introduction: Targets, Goals and Orientors.- 1 Targets, Goals and Orientors.- 2 The Theoretical Approach: Tendencies of Ecosystem Development.- 2.1 The Physical Basis of Ecological Goal Functions - Fundamentals, Problems and Questions.- 2.2 Ecological Orientors: Emergence of Basic Orientors in Evolutionary Self-Organization.- 2.3 Ecological Orientors: Pattern and Process of Succession in Relation to Ecological Orientors.- 2.4 Thermodynamic Orientors: Exergy as a Goal Function in Ecological Modeling and as an Ecological Indicator for the Description Ecosystem Development.- 2.5 Thermodynamic Orientors: Exergy as a Holistic Ecosystem Indica-tor: A Case Study.- 2.6 Thermodynamic Orientors: How to Use Thermodynamic Concepts in Ecology.- 2.7 Thermodynamic Orientors: A Review of Goal Functions and Ecosys-tern Indicators.- 2.8 Network Orientors: Steps Towards a Cosmography of Ecosystems: Orientors for Directional Development, Self-Organization, and Autoevolution.- 2.9 Network Orientors: A Utility Goal Function Based on Network Synergism.- 2.10 Network Orientors: Theoretical and Philosophical Considerations why Ecosystems may Exhibit a Propensity to Increase in Ascendency.- 2.11 Applying Thermodynamic Orientors: Goal Functions in the Holling Figure-Eight Model.- 2.12 Quantifying Ecosystem Maturity - a Case Study.- 2.13 Case Studies: Orientors and Ecosystem Properties in Coastal Zones.- 2.14 Case Studies: Modeling Approaches for the Practical Application of Ecological Goal Functions.- 2.15 Case Studies: Soil as the Interface of the Ecosystem Goal Function and the Earth System Goal Function.- 2.16 The Physical Basis of Ecological Goal Functions - Fundamentals, Problems and Questions.- 3 The Philosophical Basis: Aspects from Evolution Theory and Philosophy of Science.- 3.1 Introduction: Philosophical Aspects of Goal Functions.- 3.2 The Relativity of Orientors: Interdependence of Potential Goal Functions and Political and Social Developments.- 3.3 Constructions of Environmental Issues in Scientific and Public Discourse.- 3.4 Ethics and Environment: How to Found Political and SocioEconomic Targets.- 3.5 Teleology and Goal Functions: What are the Concepts of Optimality and Efficiency in Evolutionary Biology.- 3.6 Conclusions: A Generalizing Framework for Biological Orientation.- 4 The Diversity of Targets: Problems of Combining Natural and Human Orientors.- 4.1 Introduction: Human Targets in Relation to Land Use.- 4.2 Ecosystem and Society: Orientation for Sustainable Development.- 4.3 Human Orientors: A System Approach for Transdisciplinary Com-munication of Sustainable Development by Using Goal Functions.- 4.4 Human Orientors: Ecological Targets and Environmental Law.- 4.5 Applying Thermodynamic Orientors: Coupled Economic and Envi-ronmental Growth and Development.- 4.6 Ecological- Economic Budgets: Society's Maneuver Towards Sus-tainable Development: Information and the Setting of Target Values.- 4.7 Targets of Nature Conservation: Consequences for Ecological and Economic Goal Functions.- 4.8 Conclusion: Sustainability as a Level of Integration for Diverging Targets?.- 5 The Practical Consequences: Eco Targets as Goal Functions in Environmental Management.- 5.1 Introduction: Orientors and Goal Functions for Environmental Planning - Questions and Outlines.- 5.2 Integrating Diverging Orientors: Quantifying the Interaction of Human and the Ecosphere: The Sustainable Process Index.- 5.3 Applying Thermodynamic Orientors: The Use of Exergy as an Indi-cator in Environmental Management.- 5.4 Integrating Diverging Orientors: Time Scale Effects with Respect to Sustainability.- 5.5 Deriving Eco Targets from Ecological Orientors: Goals of Nature Conservation and their Realization on the Landscape Scale.- 5.6 Applying Thermodynamic Orientors: Tools of Orientor Optimiza-tion as a Basis for Decision Making Process.- 5.7 Deriving Eco Targets from Ecological Orientors: Marine Ecological Quality Objectives: Science and Management Aspects.- 5.8 Derivi
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