This book is a collection of invited contributions, each reflec ting an area of medicine in which computing techniques have been successfully applied; but why the title? From a control system point of view the aim of clinical medicine is to recognise the deviation of a patient from the space of normality, and to propel and steer the patient along a trajectory back to that space. Acquiring and main taining the knowledge and skills of this process is the function of medicine. The first chapter expands on this view. Subsequent chapters written by experts in their respective areas cover a fair…mehr
This book is a collection of invited contributions, each reflec ting an area of medicine in which computing techniques have been successfully applied; but why the title? From a control system point of view the aim of clinical medicine is to recognise the deviation of a patient from the space of normality, and to propel and steer the patient along a trajectory back to that space. Acquiring and main taining the knowledge and skills of this process is the function of medicine. The first chapter expands on this view. Subsequent chapters written by experts in their respective areas cover a fair range of application. All give considerable insight as to the ways in which the control system approach, facilitated by computational tools, can be of value when applied to clinical problems. The idea for this book arose naturally out of a symposium held at the University of Sussex, Brighton, England, on "Control System Concepts and Approaches in Clinical Medicine" in April, 1982, spon sored by the Institute of Measurement and Control and co-sponsored by the Institution of Electrical Engineers and the Royal Society of Medicine. It is not, however, a "proceedings" of this meeting but rather a collection of essays that reflect developing areas in which many have particular interest. We think the volume is timely and hope that the work described will be an encouragement for others.
Control System Concepts and Approaches in Clinical Medicine.- The Diagnosis and Treatment of Disease.- A Control System Approach to Medical Treatment.- Models and the Modelling Process.- The Application of Models in Control System Approaches.- Summary.- References.- The Role of Biodynamic Models in Computer-Aided Diagnosis.- The Diagnostic Process.- Diagnostic Methods in Medicine.- Computer-Aided Diagnosis.- Biodynamic Models as Diagnostic Aids.- Biodynamic Models and Computer-Aided Diagnostic Systems.- Clinical Acceptability of Models.- Acknowledgment.- References.- Clinical Decision Making in Relation to Laboratory Investigation: The Role of the Computer.- Investigations and Clinical Judgment.- What is Disease?.- You Cannot Get an Answer until You Ask a Question.- The Reference Range.- Computer-Assisted Decision Support Systems.- Some Approaches to CADSS.- Expert Systems.- Patterns of Future Development.- Further Reading.- Clinical Decision Making Using Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacodynamic Data.- Use of Pharmacokinetic Data.- Use of Pharmacodynamic Data.- Conclusion.- References.- Closed Loop Control.- Common Aspects of On-Line Control.- Computer-Aided Drug Delivery.- Controllers for Functional Neuromuscular Stimulation.- Clinical Applications.- Acknowledgments.- References.- Detection of Trends in Monitored Variables.- The Significance of Trends.- What is a Trend?.- The Central Problem of Trend Detection.- Some Early Trend Detection Methods.- Recent Trend Detection Methods.- Trend Alarms.- Possibilities for the Future.- References.- Parsimonious Systems Description: A Necessary First Step in the Development of Predictive Indicators.- The Diagnostic Hypothesis: An Example of a Parsimonious Systems Description.- Concepts and Problems in Reducing the Dimensionality of Biological Systems.- Toward a Parsimonious Description of the Oxygen Transport System.- Summary.- References.- A Review of Modelling and Simulation Techniques in Medical Education.- Statistical Models for Guiding Clinical Decision Making.- Case Simulations for Teaching the Diagnostic and Management Processes.- Nomograms and Algorithms to Teach and Assist in the Diagnosis of Specific Clinical Disorders.- Dynamic Models of Pathophysiological Systems.- Expert Systems.- Evaluation of Systems Modelling Approaches in Medical Education.- Conclusions.- References.- The Patient/Clinician Relationship, Computing and the Wider Health Care System.- Traditional Approaches and Current Problems.- The Control System Approach.- The Wider System.- Information for Decision Making.- Artificial Intelligence in Medicine.- Decision Support Systems.- Pattern for Development.- References.- List of Contributors.
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