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Flight Vehicle Dynamics and Control Rama K. Yedavalli, The Ohio State University, USA A comprehensive textbook which presents flight vehicle dynamics and control in a unified framework Flight Vehicle Dynamics and Control presents the dynamics and control of various flight vehicles, including aircraft, spacecraft, helicopter, missiles, etc, in a unified framework. It covers the fundamental topics in the dynamics and control of these flight vehicles, highlighting shared points as well as differences in dynamics and control issues, making use of the 'systems level' viewpoint. The book begins with…mehr
Flight Vehicle Dynamics and Control Rama K. Yedavalli, The Ohio State University, USA A comprehensive textbook which presents flight vehicle dynamics and control in a unified framework Flight Vehicle Dynamics and Control presents the dynamics and control of various flight vehicles, including aircraft, spacecraft, helicopter, missiles, etc, in a unified framework. It covers the fundamental topics in the dynamics and control of these flight vehicles, highlighting shared points as well as differences in dynamics and control issues, making use of the 'systems level' viewpoint. The book begins with the derivation of the equations of motion for a general rigid body and then delineates the differences between the dynamics of various flight vehicles in a fundamental way. It then focuses on the dynamic equations with application to these various flight vehicles, concentrating more on aircraft and spacecraft cases. Then the control systems analysis and design is carried out both from transfer function, classical control, as well as modern, state space control points of view. Illustrative examples of application to atmospheric and space vehicles are presented, emphasizing the 'systems level' viewpoint of control design. Key features: * Provides a comprehensive treatment of dynamics and control of various flight vehicles in a single volume. * Contains worked out examples (including MATLAB examples) and end of chapter homework problems. * Suitable as a single textbook for a sequence of undergraduate courses on flight vehicle dynamics and control. * Accompanied by a website that includes additional problems and a solutions manual. The book is essential reading for undergraduate students in mechanical and aerospace engineering, engineers working on flight vehicle control, and researchers from other engineering backgrounds working on related topics.
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Rama K. Yedavalli is a Professor in the Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering at Ohio State University. His research interests include systems level robust stability analysis and control design for uncertain dynamical systems with applications to mechanical and aerospace systems. He also works on robust control, distributed control, adaptive control, hybrid systems control and control of time delay systems with applications to mechanical and aerospace systems.
Preface xxiPerspective of the Book xxixPart I Flight Vehicle Dynamics 1Roadmap to Part I 21 An Overview of the Fundamental Concepts of Modeling of a Dynamic System 51.1 Chapter Highlights 51.2 Stages of a Dynamic System Investigation and Approximations 51.3 Concepts Needed to Derive Equations of Motion 81.4 Illustrative Example 151.5 Further Insight into Absolute Acceleration 201.6 Chapter Summary 201.7 Exercises 21Bibliography 222 Basic Nonlinear Equations of Motion in Three Dimensional Space 232.1 Chapter Highlights 232.2 Derivation of Equations of Motion for a General Rigid Body 232.3 Specialization of Equations of Motion to Aero (Atmospheric) Vehicles 322.4 Specialization of Equations of Motion to Spacecraft 432.5 Flight Vehicle DynamicModels in State Space Representation 522.6 Chapter Summary 582.7 Exercises 58Bibliography 603 Linearization and Stability of Linear Time Invariant Systems 613.1 Chapter Highlights 613.2 State Space Representation of Dynamic Systems 613.3 Linearizing a Nonlinear State Space Model 633.4 Uncontrolled, Natural Dynamic Response and Stability of First and Second Order Linear Dynamic Systems with State Space Representation 663.5 Chapter Summary 733.6 Exercises 74Bibliography 754 Aircraft Static Stability and Control 774.1 Chapter Highlights 774.2 Analysis of Equilibrium (Trim) Flight for Aircraft: Static Stability and Control 774.3 Static Longitudinal Stability 794.4 Stick Fixed Neutral Point and CG Travel Limits 864.5 Static Longitudinal Control with Elevator Deflection 924.6 Reversible Flight Control Systems: Stick Free, Stick Force Considerations 994.7 Static Directional Stability and Control 1054.8 Engine Out Rudder/Aileron Power Determination: Minimum Control Speed, VMC 1074.9 Chapter Summary 1114.10 Exercises 111Bibliography 1145 Aircraft Dynamic Stability and Control via Linearized Models 1175.1 Chapter Highlights 1175.2 Analysis of Perturbed Flight from Trim: Aircraft Dynamic Stability and Control 1175.3 Linearized Equations of Motion in Terms of Stability Derivatives For the Steady, Level Equilibrium Condition 1225.4 State Space Representation for Longitudinal Motion and Modes of Approximation 1245.5 State Space Representation for Lateral/Directional Motion and Modes of Approximation 1315.6 Chapter Summary 1385.7 Exercises 139Bibliography 1406 Spacecraft Passive Stabilization and Control 1436.1 Chapter Highlights 1436.2 Passive Methods for Satellite Attitude Stabilization and Control 1436.3 Stability Conditions for Linearized Models of Single Spin Stabilized Satellites 1466.4 Stability Conditions for a Dual Spin Stabilized Satellite 1496.5 Chapter Summary 1516.6 Exercises 152Bibliography 1527 Spacecraft Dynamic Stability and Control via Linearized Models 1557.1 Chapter Highlights 1557.2 Active Control: Three Axis Stabilization and Control 1557.3 Linearized Translational Equations of Motion for a Satellite in a Nominal Circular Orbit for Control Design 1587.4 Linearized Rotational (Attitude) Equations of Motion for a Satellite in a Nominal Circular Orbit for Control Design 1607.5 Open Loop (Uncontrolled Motion) Behavior of Spacecraft Models 1617.6 External Torque Analysis: Control Torques Versus Disturbance Torques 1617.7 Chapter Summary 1627.8 Exercises 162Bibliography 163Part II Fight Vehicle Control via Classical Transfer Function Based Methods 165Roadmap to Part II 1668 Transfer Function Based Linear Control Systems 1698.1 Chapter Highlights 1698.2 Poles and Zeroes in Transfer Functions and Their Role in the Stability and Time Response of Systems 1748.3 Transfer Functions for Aircraft Dynamics Application 1798.4 Transfer Functions for Spacecraft Dynamics Application 1838.5 Chapter Summary 1848.6 Exercises 184Bibliography 1869 Block Diagram Representation of Control Systems 1879.1 Chapter Highlights 1879.2 Standard Block Diagram of a Typical Control System 1879.3 Time Domain Performance Specifications in Control Systems 1929.4 Typical Controller Structures in SISO Control Systems 1969.5 Chapter Summary 2009.6 Exercises 201Bibliography 20210 Stability Testing of Polynomials 20310.1 Chapter Highlights 20310.2 Coefficient Tests for Stability: Routh-Hurwitz Criterion 20410.3 Left Column Zeros of the Array 20810.4 Imaginary Axis Roots 20810.5 Adjustable Systems 20910.6 Chapter Summary 21010.7 Exercises 210Bibliography 21111 Root Locus Technique for Control Systems Analysis and Design 21311.1 Chapter Highlights 21311.2 Introduction 21311.3 Properties of the Root Locus 21411.4 Sketching the Root Locus 21811.5 Refining the Sketch 21911.6 Control Design using the Root Locus Technique 22311.7 Using MATLAB to Draw the Root Locus 22511.8 Chapter Summary 22611.9 Exercises 227Bibliography 22912 Frequency Response Analysis and Design 23112.1 Chapter Highlights 23112.2 Introduction 23112.3 Frequency Response Specifications 23212.4 Advantages of Working with the Frequency Response in Terms of Bode Plots 23512.5 Examples on Frequency Response 23812.6 Stability: Gain and Phase Margins 24012.7 Notes on Lead and Lag Compensation via Bode Plots 24612.8 Chapter Summary 24812.9 Exercises 248Bibliography 25013 Applications of Classical Control Methods to Aircraft Control 25113.1 Chapter Highlights 25113.2 Aircraft Flight Control Systems (AFCS) 25213.3 Longitudinal Control Systems 25213.4 Control Theory Application to Automatic Landing Control System Design 25913.5 Lateral/Directional Autopilots 26513.6 Chapter Summary 267Bibliography 26714 Application of Classical Control Methods to Spacecraft Control 26914.1 Chapter Highlights 26914.2 Control of an Earth Observation Satellite Using a Momentum Wheel and Offset Thrusters: Case Study 26914.3 Chapter Summary 281Bibliography 281Part III Flight Vehicle Control via Modern State Space Based Methods 283Roadmap to Part III 28415 Time Domain, State Space Control Theory 28715.1 Chapter Highlights 28715.2 Introduction to State Space Control Theory 28715.3 State Space Representation in Companion Form: Continuous Time Systems 29115.4 State Space Representation of Discrete Time (Difference) Equations 29215.5 State Space Representation of Simultaneous Differential Equations 29415.6 State Space Equations from Transfer Functions 29615.7 Linear Transformations of State Space Representations 29715.8 Linearization of Nonlinear State Space Systems 30015.9 Chapter Summary 30415.10 Exercises 305Bibliography 30616 Dynamic Response of Linear State Space Systems (Including Discrete Time Systems and Sampled Data Systems) 30716.1 Chapter Highlights 30716.2 Introduction to Dynamic Response: Continuous Time Systems 30716.3 Solutions of Linear Constant Coefficient Differential Equations in State Space Form 30916.4 Determination of State Transition Matrices Using the Cayley-Hamilton Theorem 31016.5 Response of a Constant Coefficient (Time Invariant) Discrete Time State Space System 31416.6 Discretizing a Continuous Time System: Sampled Data Systems 31716.7 Chapter Summary 31916.8 Exercises 320Bibliography 32117 Stability of Dynamic Systems with State Space Representation with Emphasis on Linear Systems 32317.1 Chapter Highlights 32317.2 Stability of Dynamic Systems via Lyapunov Stability Concepts 32317.3 Stability Conditions for Linear Time Invariant Systems with State Space Representation 32817.4 Stability Conditions for Quasi-linear (Periodic) Systems 33717.5 Stability of Linear, Possibly Time Varying, Systems 33817.6 Bounded Input-Bounded State Stability (BIBS) and Bounded Input-Bounded Output Stability (BIBO) 34417.7 Chapter Summary 34517.8 Exercises 345Bibliography 34618 Controllability, Stabilizability, Observability, and Detectability 34918.1 Chapter Highlights 34918.2 Controllability of Linear State Space Systems 34918.3 State Controllability Test via Modal Decomposition 35118.4 Normality or Normal Linear Systems 35218.5 Stabilizability of Uncontrollable Linear State Space Systems 35318.6 Observability of Linear State Space Systems 35518.7 State Observability Test via Modal Decomposition 35718.8 Detectability of Unobservable Linear State Space Systems 35818.9 Implications and Importance of Controllability and Observability 36118.10 A Display of all Three Structural Properties via Modal Decomposition 36518.11 Chapter Summary 36518.12 Exercises 366Bibliography 36819 Shaping of Dynamic Response by Control Design: Pole (Eigenvalue) Placement Technique 36919.1 Chapter Highlights 36919.2 Shaping of Dynamic Response of State Space Systems using Control Design 36919.3 Single Input Full State Feedback Case: Ackermann's Formula for Gain 37319.4 Pole (Eigenvalue) Assignment using Full State Feedback: MIMO Case 37519.5 Chapter Summary 37919.6 Exercises 379Bibliography 38120 Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR) Optimal Control 38320.1 Chapter Highlights 38320.2 Formulation of the Optimum Control Problem 38320.3 Quadratic Integrals and Matrix Differential Equations 38520.4 The Optimum Gain Matrix 38720.5 The Steady State Solution 38820.6 Disturbances and Reference Inputs 38920.7 Trade-Off Curve Between State Regulation Cost and Control Effort 39220.8 Chapter Summary 39520.9 Exercises 395Bibliography 39621 Control Design Using Observers 39721.1 Chapter Highlights 39721.2 Observers or Estimators and Their Use in Feedback Control Systems 39721.3 Other Controller Structures: Dynamic Compensators of Varying Dimensions 40521.4 Spillover Instabilities in Linear State Space Dynamic Systems 40821.5 Chapter Summary 41021.6 Exercises 410Bibliography 41022 State Space Control Design: Applications to Aircraft Control 41322.1 Chapter Highlights 41322.2 LQR Controller Design for Aircraft Control Application 41322.3 Pole Placement Design for Aircraft Control Application 41422.4 Chapter Summary 42122.5 Exercises 421Bibliography 42123 State Space Control Design: Applications to Spacecraft Control 42323.1 Chapter Highlights 42323.2 Control Design for Multiple Satellite Formation Flying 42323.3 Chapter Summary 42723.4 Exercises 428Bibliography 428Part IV Other Related Flight Vehicles 429Roadmap to Part IV 43024 Tutorial on Aircraft Flight Control by Boeing 43324.1 Tutorial Highlights 43324.2 System Overview 43324.3 System Electrical Power 43624.4 Control Laws and System Functionality 43824.5 Tutorial Summary 441Bibliography 44225 Tutorial on Satellite Control Systems 44325.1 Tutorial Highlights 44325.2 Spacecraft/Satellite Building Blocks 44325.3 Attitude Actuators 44525.4 Considerations in Using Momentum Exchange Devices and Reaction Jet Thrusters for Active Control 44525.5 Tutorial Summary 449Bibliography 44926 Tutorial on Other Flight Vehicles 45126.1 Tutorial on Helicopter (Rotorcraft) Flight Control Systems 45126.2 Tutorial on Quadcopter Dynamics and Control 46226.3 Tutorial on Missile Dynamics and Control 46526.4 Tutorial on Hypersonic Vehicle Dynamics and Control 468Bibliography 470Appendices 471Appendix A Data for Flight Vehicles 472A.1 Data for Several Aircraft 472A.2 Data for Selected Satellites 476Appendix B Brief Review of Laplace Transform Theory 479B.1 Introduction 479B.2 Basics of Laplace Transforms 479B.3 Inverse Laplace Transformation using the Partial Fraction Expansion Method 482B.4 Exercises 483Appendix C A Brief Review of Matrix Theory and Linear Algebra 487C.1 Matrix Operations, Properties, and Forms 487C.2 Linear Independence and Rank 489C.3 Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors 490C.4 Definiteness of Matrices 492C.5 Singular Values 493C.6 Vector Norms 497C.7 Simultaneous Linear Equations 499C.8 Exercises 501Bibliography 503Appendix D Useful MATLAB Commands 505D.1 Author Supplied Matlab Routine for Formation of Fuller Matrices 505D.2 Available Standard Matlab Commands 507Index 509
"Different from the most existing books on the subject, this book covers not only aircraft but also spacecraft via the frequency-domain transfer function based control theory as well as the time-domain state space based control theory, thereby providing important concepts of flight dynamics and control in an integral way, which is crucial for students in aerospace engineering who want to know how flight vehicles fly as intended."Inseok Hwang, PhD, Professor, Aeronautics and AstronauticsSchool of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Purdue University"The book is a "must have" for students as well as practicing engineers. I think that the book is unique and it is a complete guideline for two undergraduate courses. It is extremely well written, and it shows the high level scientific background of its author."Mario Innocenti, PhD, Full Professor of Aerospace Dynamics and ControlDepartment of Information Engineering, University of Pisa
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