Biological Radiation Effects - Kiefer, Jürgen
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The biological action of radiation undoubtedly constitutes an issue of actual con cern, particularly after incidences like those in Harrisburg or Chernobyl. These considerations, however, were not the reason for writing this book although it is hoped that it will also be helpful in this respect. The interaction of radiation with biological systems is such an interesting research objective that to my mind no special justification is needed to pursue these problems. The combination of physics, chemistry and biology presents on one hand a fascinating challenge to the student, on the other, it may…mehr

Produktbeschreibung
The biological action of radiation undoubtedly constitutes an issue of actual con cern, particularly after incidences like those in Harrisburg or Chernobyl. These considerations, however, were not the reason for writing this book although it is hoped that it will also be helpful in this respect. The interaction of radiation with biological systems is such an interesting research objective that to my mind no special justification is needed to pursue these problems. The combination of physics, chemistry and biology presents on one hand a fascinating challenge to the student, on the other, it may lead to insights which are not possible if the dif ferent subjects remain clearly separated. Special problems of radiation biology have quite often led to new approaches in physics (or vice versa), a recent example is "microdosimetry" (chapter 4). Biological radiation a9tion comprises all levels of biological organization. It starts with the absorption in essential atoms and molecules and ends with the development of cancer and genetic hazards to future generations. The structure of the book reflects this. Beginning with physical and chemical fundamentals, it then turns to a description of chemical and subcellular systems. Cellular effects form a large part since they are the basis for understanding all further responses. Reactions of the whole organism, concentrating on mammals and especially humans, are subsequently treated. The book concludes with a short discussion of problems in radiation protection and the application of radiation in medical therapy. These last points are necessarily short and somewhat superficial.
  • Produktdetails
  • Verlag: Springer, Berlin
  • 1990.
  • Seitenzahl: 464
  • Erscheinungstermin: 25. Januar 1990
  • Englisch
  • Abmessung: 240mm x 160mm x 30mm
  • Gewicht: 774g
  • ISBN-13: 9783540510895
  • ISBN-10: 3540510893
  • Artikelnr.: 24023896
Inhaltsangabe
1 Types of Radiation: Characterization and Sources.- 1.1 Types of Radiation.- 1.2 Emission Spectra.- 1.3 Radiation Sources.- 1.3.1 Optical Radiation.- 1.3.2 Ionizing Radiation.- 1.4 Radioactivity.- 2 Fundamentals of Radiation Attenuation in Matter.- 2.1 Interaction Cross Section.- 2.2 Collision Processes.- 3 Interaction Processes.- 3.1 Optical Radiation.- 3.2 Ionizing Radiation.- 3.2.1 Electromagnetic Radiation.- 3.2.1.1 General.- 3.2.1.2 COMPTON Effect.- 3.2.1.3 Photoeffect.- 3.2.1.4 Pair Formation.- 3.2.1.5 AUGER Effect.- 3.2.1.6 Summary of Photon Interactions.- 3.2.2 Neutrons.- 3.2.3 Ions.- 3.2.4 Mesons.- 3.2.5 Electrons.- 3.2.6 Ranges.- 3.2.7 Fluence and Slowing Down Spectrum.- 4 Deposition of Radiation Energy.- 4.1 General Aspects.- 4.2 Ionizing Radiation.- 4.2.1 Macroscopic Aspects.- 4.2.1.1 Dose and Exposure.- 4.2.1.2 Linear Energy Transfer.- 4.2.2 Depth Dose Curves.- 4.2.3 Microdosimetry.- 4.2.4 Track Structure.- 4.2.5 Dosimetry of Incorporated Radionuclides.- 4.3 Dosimetry of Optical Radiation.- 5 Elements of Photo- and Radiation Chemistry.- 5.1 Photochemistry.- 5.1.1 Fundamentals.- 5.1.2 Photosensitization.- 5.1.3 Action Spectroscopy.- 5.1.4 Special Reactions.- 5.1.4.1 Atmospheric Photochemistry.- 5.1.4.2 Photochemical Formation of Vitamin D.- 5.2 Radiation Chemistry.- 5.2.1 Fundamentals.- 5.2.2 Radiation Chemistry of Water.- 5.2.3 Direct and Indirect Effect.- 6 Photo- and Radiation Chemistry of DNA.- 6.1 Photochemical Alterations.- 6.1.1 General Aspects.- 6.1.2 UV-induced Base Alterations.- 6.1.3 Sensitized Reactions.- 6.2 Radiation Chemistry of DNA.- 7 Radiation Effects on Subcellular Systems.- 7.1 Target Theory.- 7.2 Gene Mapping.- 7.3 Viruses, Plasmids, Transforming DNA, and Vectors.- 7.3.1 Techniques.- 7.3.2 Radiation Action.- 7.3.2.1 Inactivation.- 7.3.2.2 Induction.- 7.3.3 Special Repair Processes.- 7.3.3.1 Host Cell Reactivation.- 7.3.3.2 WEIGLE Reactivation.- 7.3.3.3 Phage-directed Repair.- 7.3.3.4 Multiplicity Reactivation.- 8 Loss of Reproductive Ability in Cells.- 8.1 Survival Curves.- 8.2 Radiation Sensitivity and Nuclear Parameters.- 8.3 Radiation Quality.- 8.3.1 Action Spectra.- 8.3.2 LET Dependence.- 8.3.3 Interaction Between Different Types of Radiation.- 8.3.3.1 General Aspects.- 8.3.3.2 Interaction Between UV and Ionizing Radiation.- 8.3.3.3 Interaction Between Low- and High LET Radiation.- 9 Radiosensitization and Protection.- 9.1 Photosensitization.- 9.2 Sensitization and Protection with Ionizing Radiation.- 9.2.1 Radioprotective Substances.- 9.2.2 The Oxygen Effect.- 9.2.3 Radiation Sensitizers.- 10 Radiation and the Cell Cycle.- 10.1 Radiation Sensitivity as a Function of Cell Cycle Stage.- 10.2 Progression and Division Delay.- 10.3 DNA Synthesis.- 11 Chromosome Aberrations.- 12 Mutation and Transformation.- 12.1 Mutation Types and Test Procedures.- 12.2 Mutation Induction in Microorganisms.- 12.3 Mutation Induction in Mammalian Cells.- 12.4 Comparison of Radiation-induced Mutations in Different Systems.- 12.5 Molecular Aspects of Radiation-induced Mutagenesis in Cells.- 12.6 Neoplastic Transformation in vitro.- 13 Repair and Recovery.- 13.1 General Aspects and Definitions.- 13.2 Specific Repair Processes.- 13.2.1 Photoreactivation.- 13.2.2 Excision Repair.- 13.2.3 Post Replication Repair.- 13.2.4 SOS Repair.- 13.2.5 Mismatch Repair.- 13.2.6 Single-strand Break Repair.- 13.2.7 Double-strand Break Repair.- 13.3 Recovery.- 13.3.1 "Split-dose Recovery".- 13.3.2 Recovery from Potentially Lethal Damage.- 13.4 Genetic Dependence of Repair Processes.- 14 Modifications of Radiation Effects by External Influences.- 14.1 General Aspects.- 14.2 The Time Factor in Radiation Biology.- 14.3 Temperature.- 14.4 Chemicals.- 14.5 Tonicity.- 15 Special Aspects of Cellular Radiation Action.- 15.1 Near Ultraviolet and Visible Light.- 15.2 Other Types of Radiation.- 15.2.1 Preliminary Remarks.- 15.2.2 Ultrasound.- 15.2.3 Radiofrequency and Microwaves.- 15.3 Incorporated Radionuclides.- 15.4 Radiomimetics.- 16 Th