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Comprehensively covers the engineering aspects of corrosion and materials in hydrocarbon production This book captures the current understanding of corrosion processes in upstream operations and provides a brief overview of parameters and measures needed for optimum design of facilities. It focuses on internal corrosion occurring in hydrocarbon production environments and the key issues affecting its occurrence, including: the types and morphology of corrosion damage; principal metallic materials deployed; and mitigating measures to optimise its occurrence. The book also highlights important…mehr
Comprehensively covers the engineering aspects of corrosion and materials in hydrocarbon production This book captures the current understanding of corrosion processes in upstream operations and provides a brief overview of parameters and measures needed for optimum design of facilities. It focuses on internal corrosion occurring in hydrocarbon production environments and the key issues affecting its occurrence, including: the types and morphology of corrosion damage; principal metallic materials deployed; and mitigating measures to optimise its occurrence. The book also highlights important areas of progress and challenges, and looks toward the future of research and development to enable improved and economical design of facilities for oil and a gas production. Written for both those familiar and unfamiliar with the subject--and by two authors with more than 60 years combined industry experience--this book covers everything from Corrosion Resistant Alloys (CRAs) to internal metal loss corrosion threats, corrosion in injection systems to microbiologically influenced corrosion, corrosion risk analysis to corrosion and integrity management, and more, notably: * Comprehensively covers the engineering aspects of corrosion and materials in hydrocarbon production * Written by two, renowned experts in the field * Offers practical guide to those unfamiliar with the subject whilst providing a focused roadmap to addressing the topics in a precise and methodical manner * Covers all aspects of corrosion threat and remedial and mitigation measures in upstream hydrocarbon production applicable to sub-surface, surface, and transportation facilities * Outlines technology challenges that need further research as a pre-cursor to moving the industry forward. Operational and Engineering Aspects of Corrosion and Materials in Hydrocarbon Production is an excellent guide for both practicing materials and corrosion engineers working in hydrocarbons production as well as those entering the area who may not be fully familiar with the subject.
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Bijan Kermani, PhD is managing director of KeyTech, UK since 1999 and a visiting professor at University of Leeds and previously at UCL. He has over 40 years' experience of materials, metallurgy and corrosion in the oil and gas and steel industries focusing on materials optimisation, corrosion mitigation and integrity management. In addition, he manages innovative and step changer projects for multinational companies worldwide. He is a NACE Fellow, Fellow of Institute of Corrosion (ICorr), Fellow of Institute of Materials (IOM3), recipient of NACE 2007 Technical Achievement Award, Chartered Engineer, and Instructor for various NACE International courses. Don Harrop has over 40 years' experience working primarily in the oil and gas industry addressing a broad range of materials and corrosion issues through research, technology development and front-line engineering. He is a past President and Honorary Fellow of the UK Institute of Corrosion (ICorr) and the European Federation of Corrosion (EFC).
Preface xviiAcknowledgement xix1 Introduction 11.1 Scope and Objectives 21.2 The Impact of Corrosion 21.3 Principal Types of Corrosion in Hydrocarbon Production 51.4 The Way Ahead: Positive Corrosion 71.5 Summary 8References 9Bibliography 92 Carbon and Low Alloy Steels (CLASs) 112.1 Steel Products 112.2 Development of Mechanical Properties 122.3 Strengthening Mechanisms 142.4 Hardenability 162.5 Weldability 162.6 Line Pipe Steels 172.7 Well Completion Downhole Tubulars 172.8 Internally Clad Materials 182.9 Summary 18Reference 20Bibliography 20API/ISO Specifications 20ASME Standard 21Further Reading 213 Corrosion-Resistant Alloys (CRAs) 233.1 Background 233.2 Alloying Elements, Microstructures, and their Significance for Corrosion Performance 243.3 Common Types/Grades of CRA Used in the Hydrocarbon Production Systems 303.4 Important Metallurgical Aspects of CRAs 333.5 Limits of Application 363.6 Selection Criteria 373.7 Future Demands and Requirements 393.8 Summary 40References 41Bibliography 42Specifications 42Further Reading 424 Water Chemistry 434.1 Sources of Water 444.2 Water Chemistry 454.3 Other Impacts on Corrosivity 464.4 Water Sampling Locations and Analysis Techniques 494.5 Influential Parameters in System Corrosivity 534.6 Summary 54References 54Bibliography 55Standards 555 Internal Metal Loss Corrosion Threats 575.1 CO2 Metal Loss Corrosion 585.2 Key Influential Factors 605.3 Metal Loss CO2 Corrosion Prediction 635.4 Metal Loss Corrosion in Mixed H2S/CO2 Containing Streams 665.5 Summary 68References 69Bibliography 716 Environmental Cracking (EC) 736.1 Environmental Cracking Threat in Steels 736.2 EC Associated with Hydrogen Sulphide 746.3 Current Industry Practices 836.4 ISO 15156 836.5 Summary 86Bibliography 877 Corrosion in Injection Systems 897.1 The Intent 907.2 Injection Systems 907.3 Water Treatment Methods 927.4 Water Corrosivity 947.5 Means of Corrosion Prediction 957.6 Materials Options 977.7 Supplementary Notes 1007.8 Hydrotesting 1017.9 Summary 103References 104Bibliography 1048 Corrosion Mitigation by the Use of Inhibitor Chemicals 1058.1 Inhibitor Characteristics 1058.2 Inhibitor Testing and Application 1118.3 Inhibitor Application/Deployment 1168.4 Summary 119References 1209 Coating Systems 1239.1 External Pipeline Coatings 1239.2 Internal Coating and Lining 1289.3 External Painting of Structures 1309.4 Summary 132References 132Bibliography 13210 Corrosion Trending 13310.1 The Purpose of Corrosion Trending 13410.2 Corrosion Monitoring 13510.3 Corrosion Barrier Monitoring 14210.4 Collection and Analysis of Real-Time Monitoring Data 14310.5 Downhole Corrosion Monitoring 14510.6 Inspection Techniques 14610.7 Intelligent Pigging 14710.8 Future Considerations 14910.9 Summary 150References 150Bibliography 151Specifications 15111 Microbiologically Influenced Corrosion (MIC) 15311.1 Main Features 15411.2 The Primary Causes 15511.3 The Motive for Promotion of Corrosion by Micro-organisms 15711.4 Most Susceptible Locations and Conditions 16111.5 Potential Prevention Measures 16511.6 Means of Monitoring 16811.7 Summary 170References 171Bibliography 17212 Dense Phase CO2 Corrosion 17312.1 Background 17312.2 CO2 Stream Composition 17512.3 Corrosion in the Presence of Aqueous Phases 17712.4 Means of Corrosion Prediction 17812.5 Method of Corrosion Mitigation 17912.6 Summary 181References 18113 Corrosion Under Insulation (CUI) 18313.1 Historical Context 18313.2 Key Parameters Affecting CUI 18413.3 CUI Prevention Methods 18913.4 CUI Mitigation Strategy 19213.5 CUI Inspection 19313.6 NDE/NDT Techniques to Detect CUI 19513.7 Summary 196References 19714 Metallic Materials Optimisation Routes 19914.1 Background 19914.2 Production Facilities 20014.3 The Operating Regimes 20414.4 System Corrosivity 20514.5 Oxygen Corrosion 20614.6 Metallic Materials Optimisation Methodology 20614.7 Materials Options 20714.8 Internal Corrosion Mitigation Methods 20814.9 Whole Life Cost (WLC) Analysis 21014.10 Materials Optimisation Strategy 21114.11 Summary 212References 212Bibliography 21315 Non-metallic Materials: Elastomer Seals and Non-metallic Liners 21515.1 Elastomer Seals 21515.2 Non-metallic Liner Options for Corrosion Control 22115.3 Flexible Pipes 22615.4 Summary 229References 230Bibliography 23016 Cathodic Protection (CP) 23116.1 Key Points of Effectiveness 23216.2 Cathodic Protection in Environmental Waters 23216.3 Cathodic Protection and Hydrogen-Induced Cracking (HAC) 23716.4 Cathodic Protection of Structures in Contact with the Ground 23816.5 Cathodic Protection of Well Casings 24016.6 Cathodic Protection and AC Interference 24116.7 Inspection and Testing 24216.8 Internal Cathodic Protection Systems 24216.9 Summary 24216.10 Terminologies 243References 244Bibliography 24517 Corrosion Risk Analysis 24717.1 Risk 24817.2 The Bow Tie Concept 24817.3 Risk Matrix 24917.4 Corrosion RBA Process 25017.5 Corrosion RBA: Input 25117.6 Corrosion RBA: Analysis 25217.7 Corrosion RBA: Output 25517.8 Corrosion RBA: Overall Process 25717.9 Risky Business 25817.10 Behaviours 25817.11 Bayes' Theorem 25917.12 Moving Forward 26017.13 Summary 260References 26118 Corrosion and Integrity Management 26318.1 Integrity Management (IM) 26318.2 Corrosion Management (CM) 26618.3 Data Management 27118.4 The Future 27418.5 Summary 275References 276Bibliography 27619 Corrosion and Materials Challenges in Hydrocarbon Production 27719.1 Energy Viewpoint and the Role of Technology 27719.2 Future Focus Areas and Horizon 27819.3 Challenges in Materials and Corrosion Technology 27819.4 Shortfalls in Technology Implementation and Knowledge Partnership 27919.5 Summary 284References 284Bibliography 286Abbreviations 287Index 291
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