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This third edition of Semantics provides an engaging and accessible introduction to semantics for students new to the field. It covers the basic concepts and methods of the field and discusses some of the most important contemporary lines of research. This new edition has been completely revised and updated, and now includes: new sections on classifiers and noun classes, as well as conceptual integration; an extended discussion of theory; additional examples throughout in order to familiarize the student with the practice of semantic description; and increased numbers of chapter exercises along with new solutions.…mehr

Produktbeschreibung
This third edition of Semantics provides an engaging and accessible introduction to semantics for students new to the field. It covers the basic concepts and methods of the field and discusses some of the most important contemporary lines of research. This new edition has been completely revised and updated, and now includes: new sections on classifiers and noun classes, as well as conceptual integration; an extended discussion of theory; additional examples throughout in order to familiarize the student with the practice of semantic description; and increased numbers of chapter exercises along with new solutions.
  • Produktdetails
  • Introducing Linguistics Vol.2
  • Verlag: Blackwell Publishers
  • 3rd ed.
  • Seitenzahl: 480
  • 2008
  • Ausstattung/Bilder: 3rd ed. 2008. XVII, 456 p. 244 mm
  • Englisch
  • Abmessung: 246mm x 171mm x 26mm
  • Gewicht: 724g
  • ISBN-13: 9781405156394
  • ISBN-10: 1405156392
  • Best.Nr.: 25055076
Autorenporträt
John I. Saeed is Associate Professor of Linguistics and Head of the School of Linguistic, Speech and Communication Sciences, Trinity College, University of Dublin. He is the author of several books, including Somali Reference Grammar (second edition, 1993) and Somali (1999).
Inhaltsangabe
Preface

Dedication

Part I: Preliminaries:

1. Semantics In Linguistics:

Introduction

Semantics And Semiotics

Three Challenges In Doing Semantics

Meeting The Challenges

Semantics In A Model Of Grammar

Some Important Assumptions

Summary

Further Reading

Exercises

Notes

2. Meaning, Thought And Reality:

Introduction

Reference

Reference As A Theory Of Meaning

Mental Representations

Words, Concepts And Thinking

Summary

Further Reading

Exercises

Notes

Part II: Semantic Description:

3. Word Meaning:

Introduction

Words And Grammatical Categories

Words And Lexical Items

Problems With Pinning Down Word Meaning

Lexical Relations

Derivational Relations

Lexical Universals

Summary

Further Reading

Exercises

Notes

4. Sentence Relations And Truth:

Introduction

Logic And Truth

Necessary Truth, A Priori Truth And Analyticity

Entailment

Presupposition

Summary

Further Reading

Exercises

Notes

5. Sentence Semantics 1: Situations:

Introduction

Classifying Situations

Modality And Evidentiality

Summary

Further Reading

Exercises

Notes

6. Sentence Semantics 2: Participants:

Introduction: Classifying Participants

Thematic Roles

Grammatical Relations And Thematic Roles

Verbs And Thematic Role Grids

Problems With Thematic Roles

The Motivation For Identifying Thematic Roles

Voice

Classifiers and noun classes

Summary

Further Reading

Exercises

Notes

7. Context And Inference:

Introduction

Deixis

Reference And Context

Knowledge As Context

Information Structure

Inference

Conversational Implicature

Summary

Further Reading

Exercises

Notes

8. Functions Of Language: Speech As Action:

Introduction

Austin's Speech Act Theory

Categorizing Speech Acts

Indirect Speech Acts

Sentence Types

Summary

Further Reading

Exercises

Notes

Part III: Theoretical Approaches:

9. Meaning Components:

Introduction

Lexical Relations In CA

Katz's Semantic Theory

Grammatical Rules And Semantic Components

Components And Conflation Patterns

Jackendoff's Conceptual Structure

Pustejovsky's Generative Lexicon

Problems With Components Of Meaning

Summary

Further Reading

Exercises

Notes

10. Formal Semantics:

Introduction

Model-Theoretical Semantics

Translating English Into A Logical Metalanguage

The Semantics Of The Logical Metalanguage

Checking The Truth Value Of Sentences

Word Meaning: Meaning Postulates

Natural Language Quantifiers And Higher Order Logic

Intensionality

Dynamic Approaches To Discourse

Summary

Further Reading

Exercises

Notes

11. Cognitive Semantics:

Introduction

Metaphor

Metonymy

Image Schemas

Polysemy

Mental Spaces

Langacker's Cognitive Grammar

Summary

Further Reading

Exercises

Notes

References

Index

Exercise Solutions

References

List of Figures and Tables xv

Preface xvii

Abbreviations and Symbols xix

Part I Preliminaries 1

1 Semantics in Linguistics 3

1.1 Introduction 3

1.2 Semantics and Semiotics 5

1.3 Three Challenges in Doing Semantics 5

1.4 Meeting the Challenges 7

1.5 Semantics in a Model of Grammar 8

1.5.1 Introduction 8

1.5.2 Word meaning and sentence meaning 9

1.6 Some Important Assumptions 10

1.6.1 Reference and sense 11

1.6.2 Utterances, sentences, and propositions 11

1.6.3 Literal and non-literal meaning 13

1.6.4 Semantics and pragmatics 15

1.7 Summary 17

Exercises 17

Further Reading 19

Notes 19

References 20

2 Meaning, Thought, and Reality 22

2.1 Introduction 22

2.2 Reference 24

2.2.1 Types of reference 24

2.2.2 Names 26

2.2.3 Nouns and noun phrases 27

2.3 Reference as a Theory of Meaning 29

2.4 Mental Representations 31

2.4.1 Introduction 31

2.4.2 Concepts 32

2.4.3 Necessary and sufficient conditions 33

2.4.4 Prototypes 34

2.4.5 Relations between concepts 36

2.4.6 Acquiring concepts 37

2.5 Words, Concepts, and Thinking 37

2.5.1 Linguistic relativity 38

2.5.2 The language of thought hypothesis 40

2.5.3 Thought and reality 41

2.6 Summary 42

Exercises 43

Further Reading 44

Notes 44

References 45

Part II Semantic Description 49

3 Word Meaning 51

3.1 Introduction 51

3.2 Words and Grammatical Categories 52

3.3 Words and Lexical Items 53

3.4 Problems with Pinning Down Word Meaning 56

3.5 Lexical Relations 59

3.5.1 Homonymy 60

3.5.2 Polysemy 60

3.5.3 Synonymy 61

3.5.4 Opposites (antonymy) 63

3.5.5 Hyponymy 65

3.5.6 Meronymy 66

3.5.7 Member-collection 67

3.5.8 Portion-mass 67

3.6 Derivational Relations 67

3.6.1 Causative verbs 68

3.6.2 Agentive nouns 68

3.7 Lexical Typology 69

3.7.1 Polysemy 70

3.7.2 Color terms 71

3.7.3 Core vocabulary 73

3.7.4 Universal lexemes 74

3.8 Summary 75

Exercises 76

Further Reading 78

Notes 79

References 80

4 Sentence Relations and Truth 84

4.1 Introduction 84

4.2 Logic and Truth 86

4.3 Necessary Truth, A Priori Truth, and Analyticity 91

4.4 Entailment 94

4.5 Presupposition 97

4.5.1 Introduction 97

4.5.2 Two approaches to presupposition 98

4.5.3 Presupposition failure 100

4.5.4 Presupposition triggers 101

4.5.5 Presuppositions and context 103

4.5.6 Pragmatic theories of presupposition 104

4.6 Summary 105

Exercises 106

Further Reading 108

Notes 108

References 110

5 Sentence Semantics 1: Situations 112

5.1 Introduction 112

5.2 Classifying Situations 113

5.2.1 Introduction 113

5.2.2 Verbs and situation types 115

5.2.3 A system of situation types 118

5.2.4 Tests for situation types 120

5.2.5 Tense 122

5.2.6 Aspect 125

5.2.7 Comparing aspect across languages 130

5.2.8 Combining situation type and aspect 132

5.3 Modality and Evidentiality 134

5.3.1 Modality 134

5.3.2 Mood 138

5.3.3 Evidentiality 140

5.4 Summary 142

Exercises 143

Further Reading 146

Notes 146

References 147

6 Sentence Semantics 2: Participants 149

6.1 Introduction: Classifying Participants 149

6.2 Thematic Roles 150

6.3 Grammatical Relations and Thematic Roles 155

6.4 Verbs and Thematic Role Grids 156

6.5 Problems with Thematic Roles 158

6.6 The Motivation for Identifying Thematic Roles 161

6.7 Causation 164

6.8 Voice 166

6.8.1 Passive voice 166

6.8.2 Comparing passive constructions across languages 169

6.8.3 Middle voice 172

6.9 Classifiers and Noun Classes 175

6.9.1 Classifiers 175

6.9.2 Noun classes 177

6.10 Summary 178

Exercises 179

Further Reading 182

Notes 182

References 184

7 Context and Inference 189

7.1 Introduction 189

7.2 Deixis 190

7.2.1 Spatial deixis 190

7.2.2 Grammaticalization of context 193

7.2.3 Extensions of spatial deixis 194

7.2.4 Person d
Rezensionen
"This book is an invaluable resource for students and instructors. It offers impressively broad coverage of semantic theory, and it strikes an ideal balance between theoretical developments and empirical investigation.Christopher Potts, University of Massachusetts, Amherst

"This lively and engaging book provides an excellent introduction to current linguistic semantics.Its coverage is comprehensive, taking readers from foundational concepts, through descriptive techniques, to theoretical approaches to the subject. The use of languages other than English to exemplify the discussion is particularly refreshing, and this revised edition will continue to provide teachers with a clear and easy to use textbook, and students with a solid foundation in semantics." Ronnie Cann, Edinburgh University
"This book is an invaluable resource for students and instructors. It offers impressively broad coverage of semantic theory, and it strikes an ideal balance between theoretical developments and empirical investigation."
Christopher Potts, University of Massachusetts, Amherst

"This lively and engaging book provides an excellent introduction to current linguistic semantics.
Its coverage is comprehensive, taking readers from foundational concepts, through descriptive techniques, to theoretical approaches to the subject. The use of languages other than English to exemplify the discussion is particularly refreshing, and this revised edition will continue to provide teachers with a clear and easy to use textbook, and students with a solid foundation in semantics."
Ronnie Cann, Edinburgh University