Enzymes in Anesthesiology

Mitarbeit: Aszalos, A. A.; Foldes, F. F.; Mark, L. C.; Ngai, S. H.; Patterson, R. W.; Herausgegeben von Foldes, F. F.
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Produktinformation

  • Verlag: Springer, Berlin; Springer New York
  • 2013
  • Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 1978
  • Ausstattung/Bilder: Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 1978. 2011. XIX, 368 pp. 34 figs., 18 tabs. 235 mm
  • Seitenzahl: 392
  • Englisch
  • Abmessung: 235mm x 155mm x 21mm
  • Gewicht: 591g
  • ISBN-13: 9781461262503
  • ISBN-10: 146126250X
  • Best.Nr.: 39511639

Inhaltsangabe

I. Basic Considerations.
1. Structure of Enzymes.
Molecular Weight of Enzymes and Number of Peptide Chains in Them.
Primary Structure of Enzymes.
Secondary Structure of Enzymes.
Tertiary Structure of Enzymes.
Quaternary Structure of Enzymes.
References.
2. Isolation of Enzymes.
Test Systems.
Extraction.
Fractionation.
References.
3. Enzyme Kinetics.
General Consideration of Enzyme Kinetics.
Influence of Enzyme Concentration.
Influence of Substrate Concentration.
Influence of Activators or Inhibitors.
Influence of Temperature.
Influence of pH.
References.
4. Enzymatic Catalysis.
Methods of Investigation of Enzyme
Catalyzed Reactions.
Chemical Methods.
Crystallographic Methods.
Kinetic Methods.
Factors Responsible for Enzymatic Catalysis.
Reaction Pathways of Enzyme
Catalyzed Reactions.
References.
5. Enzyme Cofactors.
Coenzyme I and II.
The Flavin Coenzymes.
Pyridoxal Phosphate.
Thiamine Pyrophosphate.
Biotin.
Lipoic Acid.
Coenzyme A.
Glutathione.
Acyl Carrier Protein (ACP).
Tetrahydrofolic Acid.
Cobamide.
Nonheme Iron Proteins, Cytochromes, and Chlorophylls.
Metal Ions.
References.
6. Immobilized Enzymes.
References.
7. Classification of Enzymes.
Oxidoreductases.
Transferases.
Hydrolases.
Lyases.
Isomerases.
Ligases or Synthetases.
Reference.
II. Specific Enzymes.
8. Enzymes of Acetylcholine Metabolism.
Choline Acetyltransferase.
Distribution.
Subcellular Distribution.
Synthesis.
Purification.
Physical and Chemical Properties.
Kinetics.
Inhibitors.
Physiologic Role.
Interaction with Anesthetics and Adjuvant Drugs.
Cholinesterases.
Acetylcholinesterase.
Distribution.
Subcellular Distribution.
Synthesis.
Purification.
Physical and Chemical Properties.
Kinetics.
Butyrylcholinesterase.
Distribution.
Synthesis.
Purification.
Physical and Chemical Properties.
Kinetics.
Genetically Determined Variants.
Acceleration, Inhibition, and Reactivation of Activity of Cholinesterases.
Acceleration of the Activity of Cholinesterases.
Inhibitors of Cholinesterases.
Kinetics of Cholinesterase Inhibition.
Representative Cholinesterase Inhibitors.
Reactivation of Inhibited Cholinesterases.
Aging.
Species Variation of Cholinesterase.
Influence of Physiologic States on Human Cholinesterases.
Influence of Pathologic Conditions on Cholinesterases.
Physiologic Functions of Cholinesterases.
The Role of Cholinesterases in Anesthesiology.
The Influence of Anesthetic and Adjuvant Drugs on Cholinesterases.
The Influence of Cholinesterases on the Metabolism of Anesthetic Drugs.
The Therapy of Anticholinesterase Intoxication.
References.
9. The Interaction of Anesthetic Agents with Hepatic Microsomal Enzymes.
Pathways of Drug Metabolism.
Primary Pathways of Drug Metabolism.
Secondary Pathways of Drug Metabolism.
Conjugations (Phase 2 Reactions).
Properties of the Hepatic Microsomal Oxidase System.
Factors Affecting Metabolism of Anesthetic and Adjuvant Drugs.
Hepatic Enzyme Induction.
Inhibition of Drug
Metabolizing Enzymes.
Clinical Implications of Inhibition of Hepatic Microsomal Enzymes.
Influence of Biologic Factors on Hepatic Microsomal Metabolism.
Pharmacogenetics.
Sex Differences.
Age.
Pathologic and Environmental Factors.
References.
10. Enzymes of Synthesis and Degradation of Catecholamines and 5
Hydroxytryptamine.
Biosynthesis and Degradation of Catecholamines.
Effects of Anesthetics on the Catecholamine System.
Enzymes for the Biosynthesis and Catabolism of Catecholamines.
Tyrosine Hydroxylase (TH, EC 1.1.4.3).
Tyrosine Hydroxylase Inhibitors.
Aromatic l
Amino Acid Decarboxylase (AADC, EC 4.1.1.26).
Inhibitors of Aromatic l
Amino Acid Decarboxylase.
The Use of l
Dopa and AADC Inhibitors in the Treatment of Parkinsonism.
Dopamine
?
Hydroxylase (D? H, EC 1.14.17.1).
Dopamine
?
Hydroxylase Inhibitors.
Phenylethanolamine
N
Methyltransferase (PNMT, EC 2.1.1.
).
Monoamine Oxidases (MAO, EC 1.4.3.4).
Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors (MAOI).
Catechol
O
Methyltransferase (COMT, EC 2.1.1.6).
Biosynthesis and Degradation of 5
Hydroxytryptamine.
Tryptophan Hydroxylase (EC 1.99.1.4).
Tryptophan Hydroxylase Inhibitor.
Concluding Remarks.
Acknowledgment.
References.
11. The Cyclic AMP System.
The Cyclic AMP System.
Hormonal Effects Mediated by cAMP.
ACTH and Steroidogenesis.
Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH).
Nervous System.
Heart.
Smooth Muscle.
Anesthetic Agents.
References.
12. Effect of Anesthetic Drugs on Respiratory Enzymes.
Metabolic Pathways.
Inhibition of Oxygen Transport by Anesthetics.
Factors Controlling Respiratory Rate.
Conformational Changes.
References.
13. Creatine Phosphokinase.
Properties and Enzymologic Characteristics.
Enzymologic Classification.
Molecular Weight.
Specificity.
Cofactors.
Inhibitors.
Protein Structure.
Active Centers.
Measurement of Activity.
Enzymologie Basis.
Preparation and Preservation of Samples.
Storage.
Reproducibility.
Incubation Time.
Dilution Effect.
Temperature Effect.
Hemolysis and Other Possible Sources of Errors.
Isoenzymes: Their Tissue Distribution and Function.
Types of Isoenzymes.
The Brain
Type Isoenzyme.
The Heart Muscle
Type Isoenzyme.
The Sketetal Muscle
Type Isoenzyme.
Isoenzymes of Various Tissues.
Methods for the Determination of Isoenzymes.
Electrophoresis.
Chromatography.
Factors That Alter Creatine Phosphokinase Activity.
Physiologic Factors.
Age.
Sex.
Race.
Body Weight and Height.
Pregnancy.
Physical Fitness and Exercise.
Pathologic Conditions.
Diseases of the Nervous System.
Diseases of the Heart Muscle.
Diseases of the Skeletal Muscle.
Iatrogenic Factors.
The Effect of Drugs on Creatine Phosphokinase.
Surgery.
Anesthetic Agents.
Malignant Hyperthermia and Creatine Phosphokinase.
Genetics, Symptomatology, Therapy.
Malignant Hyperthermic Myopathy and Creatine Phosphokinase.
Malignant Hyperthermic Myopathy and Other Myopathies.
Malignant Hyperthermic Myopathy and Myotonias.
Malignant Hyperthermie Myopathy and Denervation Myopathies.
Age Distribution of Malignant Hyperthermic Myopathy.
Consanguinity and Malignant Hyperthermic Myopathy.
Possible Etiology and Pathogenesis of Malignant Hyperthermia.
Diagnostic Tests for Malignant Hyperthermia.
Summary.
Acknowledgments.
References.
Author Index.