Enzymes in Anesthesiology

Mitarbeit: Aszalos, A. A.; Foldes, F. F.; Mark, L. C.; Ngai, S. H.; Patterson, R. W.; Herausgegeben von Foldes, F. F.
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Enzymes in Anesthesiology

It is a pleasure to have the privilege of writing the foreword for a book edited by Dr. Francis F. Foldes. Dr. Foldes has collected in one convenient place a discussion and description of enzyme systems of use to the anesthesiologist and to those other individuals, such as undergraduate and graduate students in related basic sciences, who will profit by and can make use of this body of information. The practicing anesthesiologist and those who work in related fields have become increasingly aware of the need to understand enzyme activities which influence the uptake, distribution, and excretion of those substances that are used in the anesthetic management of surgical patients. A variety of such is obvious when one considers that such diverse substances as activities and muscle re­ analgesic drugs, tranquilizers, hypnotics, anesthetic agents, laxants are strongly affected by these systems and have an influence over the basic understanding of how these drugs operate and act in the body, as well as providing a safety measure so necessary to the proper conduct of clinical anesthesia. The editor and his colleagues have rendered us a great service in collecting information that deals with the basic activity of enzymes including their structure, their kinetics, and to the degree that knowledge permits, mechanism of actions.


  • Verlag: Springer, Berlin; Springer New York
  • 2011
  • Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 1978
  • Ausstattung/Bilder: Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 1978. 2011. xx, 368 S. XIX, 368 pp. 34 figs., 18 tabs. 235 mm
  • Seitenzahl: 392
  • Englisch
  • Abmessung: 235mm x 155mm x 21mm
  • Gewicht: 591g
  • ISBN-13: 9781461262503
  • ISBN-10: 146126250X
  • Best.Nr.: 39511639
I. Basic Considerations.- 1. Structure of Enzymes.- Molecular Weight of Enzymes and Number of Peptide Chains in Them.- Primary Structure of Enzymes.- Secondary Structure of Enzymes.- Tertiary Structure of Enzymes.- Quaternary Structure of Enzymes.- References.- 2. Isolation of Enzymes.- Test Systems.- Extraction.- Fractionation.- References.- 3. Enzyme Kinetics.- General Consideration of Enzyme Kinetics.- Influence of Enzyme Concentration.- Influence of Substrate Concentration.- Influence of Activators or Inhibitors.- Influence of Temperature.- Influence of pH.- References.- 4. Enzymatic Catalysis.- Methods of Investigation of Enzyme-Catalyzed Reactions.- Chemical Methods.- Crystallographic Methods.- Kinetic Methods.- Factors Responsible for Enzymatic Catalysis.- Reaction Pathways of Enzyme-Catalyzed Reactions.- References.- 5. Enzyme Cofactors.- Coenzyme I and II.- The Flavin Coenzymes.- Pyridoxal Phosphate.- Thiamine Pyrophosphate.- Biotin.- Lipoic Acid.- Coenzyme A.- Glutathione.- Acyl Carrier Protein (ACP).- Tetrahydrofolic Acid.- Cobamide.- Nonheme Iron Proteins, Cytochromes, and Chlorophylls.- Metal Ions.- References.- 6. Immobilized Enzymes.- References.- 7. Classification of Enzymes.- Oxidoreductases.- Transferases.- Hydrolases.- Lyases.- Isomerases.- Ligases or Synthetases.- Reference.- II. Specific Enzymes.- 8. Enzymes of Acetylcholine Metabolism.- Choline Acetyltransferase.- Distribution.- Subcellular Distribution.- Synthesis.- Purification.- Physical and Chemical Properties.- Kinetics.- Inhibitors.- Physiologic Role.- Interaction with Anesthetics and Adjuvant Drugs.- Cholinesterases.- Acetylcholinesterase.- Distribution.- Subcellular Distribution.- Synthesis.- Purification.- Physical and Chemical Properties.- Kinetics.- Butyrylcholinesterase.- Distribution.- Synthesis.- Purification.- Physical and Chemical Properties.- Kinetics.- Genetically Determined Variants.- Acceleration, Inhibition, and Reactivation of Activity of Cholinesterases.- Acceleration of the Activity of Cholinesterases.- Inhibitors of Cholinesterases.- Kinetics of Cholinesterase Inhibition.- Representative Cholinesterase Inhibitors.- Reactivation of Inhibited Cholinesterases.- Aging.- Species Variation of Cholinesterase.- Influence of Physiologic States on Human Cholinesterases.- Influence of Pathologic Conditions on Cholinesterases.- Physiologic Functions of Cholinesterases.- The Role of Cholinesterases in Anesthesiology.- The Influence of Anesthetic and Adjuvant Drugs on Cholinesterases.- The Influence of Cholinesterases on the Metabolism of Anesthetic Drugs.- The Therapy of Anticholinesterase Intoxication.- References.- 9. The Interaction of Anesthetic Agents with Hepatic Microsomal Enzymes.- Pathways of Drug Metabolism.- Primary Pathways of Drug Metabolism.- Secondary Pathways of Drug Metabolism.- Conjugations (Phase 2 Reactions).- Properties of the Hepatic Microsomal Oxidase System.- Factors Affecting Metabolism of Anesthetic and Adjuvant Drugs.- Hepatic Enzyme Induction.- Inhibition of Drug-Metabolizing Enzymes.- Clinical Implications of Inhibition of Hepatic Microsomal Enzymes.- Influence of Biologic Factors on Hepatic Microsomal Metabolism.- Pharmacogenetics.- Sex Differences.- Age.- Pathologic and Environmental Factors.- References.- 10. Enzymes of Synthesis and Degradation of Catecholamines and 5-Hydroxytryptamine.- Biosynthesis and Degradation of Catecholamines.- Effects of Anesthetics on the Catecholamine System.- Enzymes for the Biosynthesis and Catabolism of Catecholamines.- Tyrosine Hydroxylase (TH, EC Tyrosine Hydroxylase Inhibitors.- Aromatic l-Amino Acid Decarboxylase (AADC, EC Inhibitors of Aromatic l-Amino Acid Decarboxylase.- The Use of l-Dopa and AADC Inhibitors in the Treatment of Parkinsonism.- Dopamine-?-Hydroxylase (D? H, EC Dopamine-?-Hydroxylase Inhibitors.- Phenylethanolamine-N-Methyltransferase (PNMT, EC 2.1.1. ).- Monoamine Oxidases (MAO, EC Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors (