Epidemiology and Management of Root Diseases
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Root disease epidemics, because much of the activity takes place in soil and out of sight, pose special challenges to growers who seek to manage them and to scientists who study them. All relevant topics of root disease epidemics and their management are presented: The critical aspects of specific disease components including inoculum, host roots, mycorrhiza and the soil environment are explored. Challenges of disease assessment and the temporal and spatial aspects of epidemic development are considered, and approaches to root disease management including host resistance, chemical, biological…mehr

Produktbeschreibung
Root disease epidemics, because much of the activity takes place in soil and out of sight, pose special challenges to growers who seek to manage them and to scientists who study them. All relevant topics of root disease epidemics and their management are presented: The critical aspects of specific disease components including inoculum, host roots, mycorrhiza and the soil environment are explored. Challenges of disease assessment and the temporal and spatial aspects of epidemic development are considered, and approaches to root disease management including host resistance, chemical, biological and cultural management are discussed in detail. The book fulfills the needs of researchers, teachers, and practitioners of plant pathology.
  • Produktdetails
  • Verlag: Springer, Berlin
  • Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 1994
  • Seitenzahl: 368
  • Erscheinungstermin: 16. Dezember 2011
  • Englisch
  • Abmessung: 235mm x 155mm x 19mm
  • Gewicht: 556g
  • ISBN-13: 9783642850653
  • ISBN-10: 3642850650
  • Artikelnr.: 36113730
Inhaltsangabe
1 Inoculum.- 1.1 Role of Inoculum in Root Disease Epidemics.- 1.1.1 Concepts of Inoculum.- 1.1.2 Soil Fungistasis.- 1.1.3 Inoculum Potential.- 1.1.4 Inoculum Efficiency.- 1.1.5 Inoculum Density.- 1.1.6 Spheres of Influence on Inoculum.- 1.2 Forms of Inoculum.- 1.2.1 Primary Inoculum.- 1.2.2 Secondary Inoculum.- 1.3 Survival of Inoculum.- 1.3.1 Idealized Survival Curve.- 1.3.2 Transformation of Survival Curves.- 1.4 Quantifying Inoculum in Soil.- 1.4.1 Direct Counts.- 1.4.2 Bioassays.- 1.4.3 Soil Assays.- 1.4.4 Chemical Assays.- 1.4.5 Serological Assays.- 1.5 Inoculum Density-Disease Relationships.- 1.5.1 Inoculum Density-Infection Court Relations.- 1.5.2 Transformation of Inoculum Density-Disease Curves.- 1.5.3 Usefulness of Transformed Inoculum Density-Disease Curves.- 1.5.4 Probability Models for Inoculum Density-Disease Relations.- 1.6 Concluding Remarks.- References.- 2 Host Roots.- 2.1 Introduction.- 2.2 Root Growth and Energy Availability.- 2.2.1 Specific Tissue Contributions.- 2.2.2 Characterization of Relevant Root Tissues.- 2.3 Root System Plasticity.- 2.3.1 Conceptual Frameworks for Root System Structure.- 2.4 Evaluation of Root Systems.- 2.5 Host Susceptibility.- 2.5.1 Host Influences on Susceptibility Alterations.- 2.5.2 Environmental and Cultural Factors in Susceptibility Alterations.- 2.6 Measuring Susceptibility Alterations.- 2.7 The Future.- References.- 3 Mycorrhizae.- 3.1 Distribution and Ecological Impact of the Mycorrhizal Symbiosis.- 3.2 Productivity of Cultivated Mycorrhizal Plants.- 3.3 Mycorrhizae - Root Disease Relationships.- 3.3.1 Mechanisms Decreasing the Impact of Soilborne Pathogens in Mycorrhizal Root Systems.- 3.3.1.1 Direct Interactions of Mycorrhizae and Soilborne Pathogens.- 3.3.1.2 Indirect Interaction of Mycorrhizae and Soilborne Pathogens.- 3.3.2 Role of Mycorrhizal Fungi as Biocontrol Organisms - Significance of the Known Biological Effects in Practical Plant Production.- 3.3.3 Mycorrhizae in Integrated Plant Production.- 3.4 Future Research.- References.- 4 The Soil Environment.- 4.1 Introduction.- 4.2 Components of the Physical Soil Environment.- 4.2.1 The Soil Matrix.- 4.2.2 The Soil Solution.- 4.2.3 The Soil Atmosphere.- 4.2.4 Soil Temperature.- 4.3 Influence of Edaphic Factors on Roots and Pathogens.- 4.3.1 Root Growth and Spatial Arrangement.- 4.3.1.1 Soil Matrix Effects.- 4.3.1.2 Soil Solution and Atmosphere Effects.- 4.3.1.3 Epidemiological Significance of Altered Root Growth.- 4.3.2 Pathogen Activity.- 4.3.2.1 Soil Matrix Effects.- 4.3.2.2 Soil Solution and Atmosphere Effects.- 4.3.2.3 Soil Temperature Effects.- 4.3.3 Host Disposition.- 4.3.3.1 Soil Solution and Atmosphere.- 4.3.3.2 Soil Temperature Effects.- 4.3.3.3 Mechanism of Predisposition.- 4.4 Conclusions.- References.- 5 Estimating Disease Severity and Incidence.- 5.1 Role of Disease Assessment in Root Disease Epidemiology.- 5.1.1 The Need for Disease Assessment.- 5.1.2 Goals of Disease Assessment.- 5.2 Signs and Symptoms.- 5.3 Root and Shoot Symptoms.- 5.3.1 Physiological Relationships.- 5.3.2 Environmental Effects.- 5.3.3 Temporal Aspects.- 5.4 Disease Assessment.- 5.4.1 Illusions and Hazards of Disease Assessment.- 5.4.2 Methodology.- 5.4.2.1 Visual Estimates.- 5.4.2.2 Electronic Techniques.- 5.5 Sampling Considerations.- 5.5.1 Sampling Pattern.- 5.5.2 Sample Numbers and Costs.- 5.6 Recommendations.- References.- 6 Temporal Aspects of the Development of Root Disease Epidemics.- 6.1 The Shapes of Disease Progress Curves.- 6.2 The Dynamics of Infection and Disease.- 6.2.1 Primary Infection.- 6.2.1.1 Infection of Plants from a Large Reservoir of Inoculum in Soil.- 6.2.1.2 Root Growth and Decay of Inoculum.- 6.2.2 Secondary Infection.- 6.2.2.1 Root-to-Root Spread.- 6.2.3 Linking Primary and Secondary Infection with Allowance for Root and Inoculum Dynamics.- 6.2.3.1 Growth Equations.- 6.2.3.2 Computer Simulation: An Alternative Approach.- 6.2.4 The Death of Roots, Latent and Infectious Periods.- 6.2.5 Antagonistic Inter