Preface. Acknowledgments. Introduction. 1: Protozoa as producers of biologically active substances. 1.1. Trypanosoma cruzi as the ource of medications; selection of other species among flagellates. 1.2. Toxins and detoxification substances. 1.3. Biologically active substances of soil Protozoa. 2: Cultivation of flagellates. 2.1. Media for cultivation of flagellates. 2.2. Physiological role of main media components in the cultures of flagellates. 2.3. Conditions for flagellates growth and stimulated biosynthesis of lipids. 2.3.1. Inoculum quality and quantity. 2.3.2. pH and osmolarity regulation. 2.3.3. Influence of temperature. 2.3.4. Passive and active aeration. 3: Lipids of flagellates. 3.1. Phospholipids and sterols. 3.2. Fatty acids and conditions for stimulated biosynthesis. 3.3. Biosynthesis of lipids by flagellates. 4: Glycosylated lipids of flagellates. 4.1. Glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol (GPI) and related GIPL, LPG and LPPG. 4.2. Biological functions of GPI and related glycophospholipids. 5: Surface membrane glycoproteins of flagellates. 5.1. Variant surface glycoproteins (VSGs) and their genes rearrangement. 5.2. Sialic acids and trans-sialidases. 5.3. Membrane mucins and mucin-like glycoproteins. 6: Cytokines, eicosanoids and nitric oxide as effector molecules against parasitic flagellates. 6.1. Cytokines. 6.2. Eicosanoids. 6.3. Nitric oxide. 7: Biologically active substances of selected flagellates. 7.1. Total lipid fraction: correlation between its composition and biological activity. 7.2. Astasilid, its composition and biological activity. 7.3. Membrane glycophospholipid (GPL) and its biological activity. 7.4. Reserve polysaccharide from Astasia longa and its biological activity. Conclusion. References. Index.