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Provides a comprehensive and updated account of WDM optical network systems Optical networking has advanced considerably since 2010. A host of new technologies and applications has brought a significant change in optical networks, migrating it towards an all-optical network. This book places great emphasis on the network concepts, technology, and methodologies that will stand the test of time and also help in understanding and developing advanced optical network systems. The first part of Optical WDM Networks: From Static to Elastic Networks provides a qualitative foundation for what…mehr
Provides a comprehensive and updated account of WDM optical network systems Optical networking has advanced considerably since 2010. A host of new technologies and applications has brought a significant change in optical networks, migrating it towards an all-optical network. This book places great emphasis on the network concepts, technology, and methodologies that will stand the test of time and also help in understanding and developing advanced optical network systems. The first part of Optical WDM Networks: From Static to Elastic Networks provides a qualitative foundation for what follows--presenting an overview of optical networking, the different network architectures, basic concepts, and a high-level view of the different network structures considered in subsequent chapters. It offers a survey of enabling technologies and the hardware devices in the physical layer, followed by a more detailed picture of the network in the remaining chapters. The next sections give an in-depth study of the three basic network structures: the static broadcast networks, wavelength routed networks, and the electronic/optical logically routed networks, covering the characteristics of the optical networks in the access, metropolitan area, and long-haul reach. It discusses the networking picture; network control and management, impairment management and survivability. The last section of the book covers the upcoming technologies of flex-grid and software defined optical networking. * Provides concise, updated, and comprehensive coverage of WDM optical networks * Features numerous examples and exercise problems for the student to practice * Covers, in detail, important topics, such as, access, local area, metropolitan, wide area all-optical and elastic networks * Includes protocols, design, and analysis along with the control and management of the networks * Offers exclusive chapters on advance topics to cover the present and future technological trends, such as, software defined optical networking and the flexible grid optical networks Optical WDM Networks: From Static to Elastic Networks is an excellent book for under and post graduate students in electrical/communication engineering. It will also be very useful to practicing professionals in communications, networking, and optical systems.
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DEVI CHADHA, PHD, is Professor Emeritus at IIT, Delhi in India. She has over 40 years of teaching and research experience in the areas of electromagnetics, microwaves, optical fiber communication, optical wireless communications, and photonics and switching networks. In addition, Professor Chadha is a Senior Member of IEEE, a Member of OSA, and a Fellow of IE (India).
Preface xiii Acknowledgments xvii 1 Introduction to Optical Networks 1 1.1 Introduction 1 1.1.1 Trends in Optical Networking 2 1.1.2 Classification of Optical Networks 3 1.2 Optical Networks: A Brief Picture 7 1.2.1 Multiplexing in Optical Networks 8 1.2.2 Services Supported by Optical Networks 9 1.2.3 WDM Optical Network Architectures 10 22.214.171.124 Broadcast-and-Select Networks 10 126.96.36.199 Wavelength Routed Networks 11 188.8.131.52 Linear Lightwave Networks 13 1.2.4 Services Types 13 1.2.5 Types of Traffic 14 1.2.6 Switching Granularities 14 184.108.40.206 Optical Circuit Switching 15 220.127.116.11 Packet Switching for Bursty Traffic 15 1.3 Optical Network Layered Architecture 16 1.3.1 Layers and Sub-layers 19 1.4 Organization of the Book 23 1.5 Summary 24 Problems 24 References 25 2 Network Elements 27 2.1 Introduction 27 2.2 Optical Fiber 29 2.2.1 Loss and Bandwidth Windows 30 2.2.2 Linear and Nonlinear Effects 32 2.3 Laser Transmitters 33 2.3.1 Laser Characteristics 34 2.3.2 Tunable Lasers 34 2.3.3 Modulation Techniques 35 2.4 Optical Receivers 36 2.5 Optical Amplifiers 37 2.5.1 Types of Optical Amplifiers 38 18.104.22.168 Semiconductor Optical Amplifier 38 22.214.171.124 Fiber Amplifiers 39 2.6 Optical Network Components 40 2.6.1 Passive Coupler Devices 40 126.96.36.199 Coupler Parameters 41 188.8.131.52 Scattering Matrix Formulation of the 2 × 2 Coupler 42 2.6.2 Switching Elements 44 184.108.40.206 Directive Switches 46 220.127.116.11 Gate Switches 46 18.104.22.168 Micro-Electro Mechanical Switches 47 22.214.171.124 Liquid Crystal Optical Switch 48 2.6.3 N × N Star Coupler 49 2.6.4 Gratings 52 126.96.36.199 Fiber Bragg Gratings 53 188.8.131.52 Arrayed Waveguide Grating 54 2.6.5 Optical Filters 55 184.108.40.206 Fabry-Perot Filter 56 220.127.116.11 Multi-Layer Dielectric Thin-Film Filter 58 18.104.22.168 Acousto-Optic Filter 58 2.7 Optical Multiplexer and De-Multiplexer 58 2.7.1 Mach-Zehnder Interferometer (MZI) Multiplexer 59 2.8 Routers 62 2.8.1 Static Wavelength Router 62 2.8.2 Reconfigurable Wavelength Router 62 2.8.3 Optical Packet Routing Switches 64 2.9 Optical Switching Fabrics 64 2.9.1 Classification of Switching Fabrics 65 22.214.171.124 Permutation Switching Fabric 65 126.96.36.199 Generalized Switching Fabric 65 188.8.131.52 Linear Divider and Combiner Switching Fabric 65 2.9.2 Classification According to Blocking Characteristics 66 2.9.3 Types of Space Switching Fabrics 67 184.108.40.206 Cross-Bar Switching Fabric 67 220.127.116.11 Clos Switch Fabric 69 18.104.22.168 Spanke Switch Fabric 70 22.214.171.124 Benes Switch Fabric 71 126.96.36.199 Spanke-Benes Switch Fabric 72 2.10 Wavelength Converter 72 2.10.1 Opto-Electronic Wavelength Converters 73 2.10.2 All-Optical Wavelength Converters 74 188.8.131.52 Transparent All-Optical Wavelength Converters 74 184.108.40.206 Opaque All-Optical Wavelength Converter 74 2.11 Optical Network Functional Blocks 76 2.11.1 Network Access Terminal 76 2.11.2 Optical Network Node 78 220.127.116.11 Optical Add-Drop Multiplexers 79 18.104.22.168 Optical Cross-Connect 82 2.12 Summary 85 Problems 86 References 88 3 Broadcast-and-Select Local Area Networks 91 3.1 Introduction 91 3.2 Physical Topologies of Single-Hop Networks 92 3.2.1 Star Topology 92 3.2.2 Folded Bus Topology 93 3.2.3 Tree Topology 93 3.3 Multiplexing and Multiple Access in B&S Networks 95 3.4 Network Traffic 95 3.4.1 Circuit-Switched Traffic 97 22.214.171.124 Streamed Synchronous Traffic on Dedicated Connections 97 126.96.36.199 Packet Traffic with Fixed Frame on Dedicated Connections 98 188.8.131.52 Traffic with Demand-Assigned Circuit-Switched Connections 102 3.4.2 Optical Packet Switching 105 3.5 Network Resource Sharing in Optical Networks 106 3.5.1 Capacity Increase with Number of lambda-Channels 107 3.5.2 Capacity Increase with Number of Time Slots 107 3.6 Capacity of the B&S Network 108 3.6.1 Sc
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