Classification of Endogenous Psychoses and their Differentiated Etiology - Leonhard, Karl
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Karl Leonhard's "Classification of Endogenous Psychoses" is based on sophisticated clinical descriptions and characteristical symptom patterns occurring during the long-term course of psychiatric diseases. A diagnosis can be made only if all the clinical features fit, i.e. a special diagnosis may not be made if one characteristic symptom is lacking. This is the main and important difference between Leonhard's classification and the operational diagnostic systems that require the presence of some but not all specific symptoms of a symptom cluster. Leonhard took over the essential features since…mehr

Produktbeschreibung
Karl Leonhard's "Classification of Endogenous Psychoses" is based on sophisticated clinical descriptions and characteristical symptom patterns occurring during the long-term course of psychiatric diseases. A diagnosis can be made only if all the clinical features fit, i.e. a special diagnosis may not be made if one characteristic symptom is lacking. This is the main and important difference between Leonhard's classification and the operational diagnostic systems that require the presence of some but not all specific symptoms of a symptom cluster. Leonhard took over the essential features since the early days of Psychiatry and found, always based on own live-long case studies, that the endogenous psychoses have to be divided into five main nosological different groups: on the one side the prognostically favourable unipolar affective psychoses, bipolar affective psychoses and cycloid psychoses and on the other side the prognostically unfavourable unsystematic and systematic schizophrenias. Meanwhile its reliability and validity have been confirmed by scientific studies and early results provide guidelines regarding the different origins and varied therapeutic approaches for the specific disease profiles.
Based on sophisticated clinical descriptions and characteristic symptom patters occurring during the long-term course of psychiatric diseases, Leonhards classification requires that all the clinical features fit for a diagnosis to be made. Always using his own life-long case studies, Leonhard divided the endogenous psychoses into five main nosological groups: on the one hand, the prognostically favourable unipolar affective psychoses, bipolar affective psychoses and cycloid psychoses, and, on the other hand, the prognostically unfavourable unsystematic and systematic schizophrenia. In the meantime, the reliability and validity of this classification have been confirmed by scientific studies and early results provide guidelines for the different origins and varied therapeutic approaches for the specific disease profiles.
  • Produktdetails
  • SpringerMedicine
  • Verlag: Springer, Wien
  • Artikelnr. des Verlages: 10711564
  • 2. Aufl.
  • Erscheinungstermin: 3. August 1999
  • Englisch
  • Abmessung: 249mm x 172mm x 28mm
  • Gewicht: 925g
  • ISBN-13: 9783211832592
  • ISBN-10: 3211832599
  • Artikelnr.: 08291835
Inhaltsangabe
Clinical Pictures of Phasic Psychoses (without Cycloid Psychoses).- Manic-Depressive Illness.- Pure Melancholia and Pure Mania.- Pure Melancholia.- Pure Mania.- Pure Depressions and Pure Euphorias.- Pure Depressions.- Agitated Depression.- Hypochondriacal Depression.- Self-Tortured Depression.- Suspicious Depression.- Apathetic Depression.- Pure Euphorias.- Unproductive Euphoria.- Hypochondriacal Euphoria.- Exalted Euphoria.- Confabulatory Euphoria.- Indifferent Euphoria.- The Cycloid Psychosis.- Anxiety-Happiness Psychosis.- Excited-Inhibited Confusion Psychosis.- Hyperkinctic-Akinctic Motility Psychosis.- The Unsystematic Schizophrenias.- Affective Paraphrenia.- Cataphasia (Schizophasia).- Periodic Catatonia.- The Systematic Schizophrenias.- Simple Systematic Schizophrenias.- Catatonic forms.- Parakinetic Catatonia.- Manneristic Catatonia.- Proskinetic Catatonia.- Negativistic Catatonia.- Speech-Prompt Catatonia.- Sluggish Catatonia.- Review of the Family Picture of Systematic Catatonias.- Hebephrenic Forms.- Foolish Hebephrenia.- Eccentric Hebephrenia.- Shallow Hebephrenia.- Autistic Hebephrenia.- Review of the Family Picture of Systematic Hebcphrenias.- Paranoid Forms.- Hypochondriacal Paraphrenia.- Phonemic Paraphrenia.- Incoherent Paraphrenia.- Fantastic Paraphrenia.- Confabulatory Paraphrenia.- Expansive Paraphrenia.- Review of the Family Picture of Systematic Paraphrenias.- Final Remarks on the Simple Systematic Forms of Schizophrenia.- Combined Systematic Schizophrenias.- Combined Systematic Catatonias.- Combined Systematic Hebephrenias.- Combined Systematic Paraphrenias.- Family Picture of Combined Systematic Schizophrenias.- Comments.- Age of Onset, Sex Incidence, Course.- Statistical Findings from Investigations before 1968.- Age of Onset, Sex Incidence, and Number of Phases in the Phasic Psychoses (Including the Cycloid).- Incidence of Psychoses in the Families of Phasic Psychoses (Including the Cycloids).- Summary: Principal Findings in Phasic (Including Cycloid) Psychoses.- Age of Onset, Sex Incidence, and Course in the Schizophrenias (Investigations before 1968).- Number of Psychoses in the Families of Schizophrenics.- Statistical Findings from Investigations after 1968.- The Question of Endogenous Mixed Psychosis.- Etiology of Endogenous Psychoses.- Significance of Hereditary Disposition.- Significance of Psychosocial Circumstances.- Lack of Communication in the Development of Systematic Schizophrenias.- Absence of Systematic Schizophrenias in Monozygotic Twins...- Lack of Communication in Systematic Schizophrenia of Childhood.- Siblings of Patients with Systematic Schizophrenias.- Prophylaxis of Systematic Schizophrenias.- Exogenous and Constitutional Causes of the Unsystematic Schizophrenias.- Periodic Catatonia.- Affective Paraphrenia.- Cataphasia.- Exogenous and Constitutional Causes of Cycloid Psychoses.- Exogenous and Constitutional Causes of Manic.- Illness.- Exogenous and Constitutional Causes of Pure Phasic Psychoses.- Early Childhood Catatonia.- Delineation of Early Childhood Catatonia.- The Question of Organicity Underlying the Clinical Picture.- Diagnosis of Childhood Schizophrenia.- Distribution of Individual Forms of Early Childhood Catatonia ...- Distinguishing Early Childhood Catatonia from Mental Retardation.- Clinical Pictures of Early Childhood Catatonia.- Simple Systematic Catatonia of Early Childhood.- Combined Systematic Catatonia of Early Childhood.- Etiology of Early Childhood Schizophrenia.- Psychosocial Causes.- Role of Heredity.- Prophylaxis of Early Childhood Catatonia.- Therapeutic Feasibility in Early Childhood Catatonia.- Karl Leonhard's Life (1904-1988).- References.