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Today, nano- and microencapsulation are increasingly being utilized in the pharmaceutical, textile, agricultural and food industries. Microencapsulation is a process in which tiny particles or droplets of a food are surrounded by a coating to give small capsules. These capsules can be imagined as tiny uniform spheres, in which the particles at the core are protected from outside elements by the protective coating. For example, vitamins can be encapsulated to protect them from the deterioration they would undergo if they were exposed to oxygen. This book highlights the principles, applications,…mehr

Produktbeschreibung
Today, nano- and microencapsulation are increasingly being utilized in the pharmaceutical, textile, agricultural and food industries. Microencapsulation is a process in which tiny particles or droplets of a food are surrounded by a coating to give small capsules. These capsules can be imagined as tiny uniform spheres, in which the particles at the core are protected from outside elements by the protective coating. For example, vitamins can be encapsulated to protect them from the deterioration they would undergo if they were exposed to oxygen. This book highlights the principles, applications, toxicity and regulation of nano- and microencapsulated foods. Section I describes the theories and concepts of nano- and microencapsulation for foods adapted from pharmaceutical areas, rationales and new strategies of encapsulation, and protection and controlled release of food ingredients. Section II looks closely at the nano- and microencapsulation of food ingredients, such as vitamins, minerals, phytochemical, lipid, probiotics and flavors. This section provides a variety of references for functional food ingredients with various technologies of nano particles and microencapsulation. This section will be helpful to food processors and will deal with food ingredients for making newly developed functional food products. Section III covers the application of encapsulated ingredients to various foods, such as milk and dairy products, beverages, bakery and confectionery products, and related food packaging materials. Section IV touches on other related issues in nano- and microencapsulation, such as bioavailability, bioactivity, potential toxicity and regulation.
  • Produktdetails
  • Verlag: BLACKWELL PUBL / John Wiley & Sons
  • Seitenzahl: 432
  • Erscheinungstermin: 3. Juni 2014
  • Englisch
  • Abmessung: 244mm x 173mm x 25mm
  • Gewicht: 998g
  • ISBN-13: 9781118292334
  • ISBN-10: 1118292332
  • Artikelnr.: 40722663
Autorenporträt
Hae-Soo Kwak is a Professor in the Department of Food Science and Technology, and Dean of the Graduate School of Industryat Sejong University in Seoul, Korea. Dr Kwak has devoted his research career in nano- and microencapsulation, nanoparticles in food, and dairy products research for the past 25 years, publishing more than 450 revered journal articles, book chapters, patents, invited papers and abstracts in national and international conferences
Inhaltsangabe
List of Contributors xiii Preface xvii 1 Overview of Nano
and Microencapsulation for Foods 1 Hae
Soo Kwak 1.1 Introduction 1 1.2 Nano
or microencapsulation as a rich source of delivery of functional components 3 1.3 Wall materials used for encapsulation 3 1.4 Techniques used for the production of nano
or microencapsulation of foods 4 1.5 Characterization of nano
or microencapsulated functional particles 5 1.6 Fortification of foods through nano
or microcapsules 6 1.7 Nano
or microencapsulation technologies: industrial perspectives and applications in the food market 6 1.8 Overview of the book 8 Acknowledgments 12 References 12 Part I Concepts and rationales of nano
and microencapsulation for foods 15 2 Theories and Concepts of Nano Materials, Nano
and microencapsulation 17 Jingyuan Wen, Guanyu Chen, and Raid G. Alany 2.1 Introduction 17 2.2 Materials used for nanoparticles, nano
and microencapsulation 19 2.2.1 Polymers 19 2.3 Nano
and microencapsulation techniques 20 2.3.1 Chemical methods 20 2.3.2 Physico
chemical methods 23 2.3.3 Other methods 25 2.3.4 Factors influencing optimization 28 2.4 Pharmaceutical and nutraceutical applications 30 2.4.1 Various delivery routes for nano
and microencapsulation systems 30 2.5 Food ingredients and nutraceutical applications 35 2.5.1 Background and definitions 35 2.5.2 Nanomaterials, nano
and microencapsulation in nutraceuticals 36 2.6 Conclusion 37 References 38 3 Rationales of Nano
and Microencapsulation for Food Ingredients 43 Sundaram Gunasekaran and Sanghoon Ko 3.1 Introduction 43 3.2 Factors affecting the quality loss of food ingredients 45 3.2.1 Oxygen 45 3.2.2 Light 47 3.2.3 Temperature 48 3.2.4 Adverse interaction 49 3.2.5 Taste masking 50 3.3 Case studies of food ingredient protection through nano
and microencapsulation 50 3.3.1 Vitamins 51 3.3.2 Enzymes 52 3.3.3 Minerals 53 3.3.4 Phytochemicals 54 3.3.5 Lipids 55 3.3.6 Probiotics 55 3.3.7 Flavors 56 3.4 Conclusion 57 References 58 4 Methodologies Used for the Characterization of Nano
and Microcapsules 65 Minh
Hiep Nguyen, Nurul Fadhilah Kamalul Aripin, Xi G. Chen, and Hyun
Jin Park 4.1 Introduction 65 4.2 Methodologies used for the characterization of nano
and microcapsules 67 4.2.1 Particle size and particle size distribution 67 4.2.2 Zeta potential measurement 75 4.2.3 Morphology 77 4.2.4 Membrane flexibility 80 4.2.5 Stability 82 4.2.6 Encapsulation efficiency 83 4.3 Conclusion 88 Acknowledgements 88 References 88 5 Advanced Approaches of Nano
and Microencapsulation for Food Ingredients 95 Mi
Jung Choi and Hae
Soo Kwak 5.1 Introduction 95 5.2 Nanoencapsulation based on the microencapsulation technology 96 5.3 Classification of the encapsulation system 97 5.3.1 Nanoparticle or microparticle 97 5.3.2 Structural encapsulation systems 100 5.4 Preparation methods for the encapsulation system 106 5.4.1 Emulsification 106 5.4.2 Precipitation 107 5.4.3 Desolvation 108 5.4.4 Ionic gelation 109 5.5 Application of the encapsulation system in food ingredients 109 5.6 Conclusion 110 References 111 Part II Nano
and microencapsulations of food ingredients 117 6 Nano
and Microencapsulation of Phytochemicals 119 Sung Je Lee and Marie Wong 6.1 Introduction 119 6.2 Classification of phytochemicals 120 6.2.1 Flavonoids 120 6.2.2 Carotenoids 124 6.2.3 Betalains 126 6.2.4 Phytosterols 127 6.2.5 Organosulfurs and glucosinolates 128 6.3 Stability and solubility of phytochemicals 129 6.4 Microencapsulation of phytochemicals 130 6.4.1 Spray
drying 131 6.4.2 Freeze
drying 135 6.4.3 Liposomes 136 6.4.4 Coacervation 138 6.4.5 Molecular inclusion complexes 141 6.5 Nanoencapsulation 146 6.5.1 Nanoemulsions 147 6.5.2 Nanoparticles 148 6.5.3 Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) 150 6.5.4 Nanoparticles through supercritical anti
solvent precipitation 152 6.6 Conclusion 153 References 153 7 Microencapsulation for Gastrointestinal Delivery of Probiotic Bacteria 167 Kasipathy Kailasapathy 7.1 Introduction 167 7.2 The gastrointestinal (GI) tract 169 7.2.1 Microbiota of the adult GI tract 169 7.2.2 Characteristics of the GI tract for probiotic delivery 170 7.3 Encapsulation technologies for probiotics 173 7.4 Techniques for probiotic encapsulation 175 7.4.1 Microencapsulation (ME) in gel particles using polymers 175 7.4.2 The extrusion technique 175 7.4.3 The emulsion technique 177 7.4.4 Spray
drying, spray
coating and spray
chilling technologies 179 7.4.5 Microencapsulation technologies for nutraceuticals incorporating probiotics 182 7.5 Controlled release of probiotic bacteria 182 7.6 Potential applications of encapsulated probiotics 183 7.6.1 Yoghurt 184 7.6.2 Cheese 185 7.6.3 Frozen desserts 186 7.6.4 Unfermented milks 186 7.6.5 Powdered formulations 187 7.6.6 Meat products 187 7.6.7 Plant
based (vegetarian) probiotic products 188 7.7 Future trends and marketing perspectives 189 References 191 8 Nano
Structured Minerals and Trace Elements for Food and Nutrition Applications 199 Florentine M. Hilty and Michael B. Zimmermann 8.1 Introduction 199 8.2 Special characteristics of nanoparticles 200 8.3 Nano
structured entities in natural foods 202 8.4 Nano
structured minerals in nutritional applications 202 8.4.1 Iron 202 8.4.2 Zinc 207 8.4.3 Calcium 209 8.4.4 Magnesium 210 8.4.5 Selenium 211 8.4.6 Copper 211 8.5 Uptake of nano
structured minerals 212 8.6 Conclusion 213 References 214 9 Nano
and Microencapsulation of Vitamins 223 Ashok R. Patel and Bhesh Bhandari 9.1 Introduction 223 9.2 Vitamins for food and nutraceutical applications 224 9.2.1 Vitamins: nutritional requirement and biological functions 224 9.2.2 Vitamins: formulation challenges and stability issues 224 9.3 Colloidal encapsulation (nano and micro) in foods: principles of use 227 9.3.1 Solid
in
liquid dispersions 229 9.3.2 Liquid
in
liquid dispersions 232 9.3.3 Dispersions of self
assembled colloids 234 9.3.4 Encapsulation in dry matrices 238 9.3.5 Molecular encapsulation of vitamins in cyclodextrins 239 9.4 Conclusion and future trends 240 References 241 10 Nano
and Microencapsulation of Flavor in Food Systems 249 Kyuya Nakagawa 10.1 Introduction 249 10.2 Flavor stabilization in food nano
and microstructures 250 10.2.1 Application of encapsulated flavors 250 10.2.2 Interactions between flavor compounds and carrier matrices 251 10.2.3 Flavor retention in colloidal systems 251 10.2.4 Flavor retention in food gel 252 10.2.5 Flavor inclusion in starch nanostructure 253 10.3 Flavor retention and release in an encapsulated system 254 10.3.1 Mass transfer at the liquid
gas interface 254 10.3.2 Mass transfer at a solid
gas interface 258 10.4 Nano
and microstructure processing 259 10.4.1 Spray
drying 260 10.4.2 Freeze
drying 262 10.4.3 Complex coacervation 264 10.5 Conclusion 266 Acknowledgements 267 References 267 11 Application of Nanomaterials, Nano
and Microencapsulation to Milk and Dairy Products 273 Hae
Soo Kwak, Mohammad Al Mijan, and Palanivel Ganesan 11.1 Introduction 273 11.2 Milk 274 11.2.1 Microencapsulation of functional ingredients 274 11.2.2 Microencapsulation of vitamins 278 11.2.3 Microencapsulation of iron 279 11.2.4 Microencapsulation of lactase 281 11.2.5 Nanofunctional ingredients 285 11.2.6 Nanocalcium 287 11.3 Yogurt 287 11.3.1 Microencapsulation of functional ingredients 287 11.3.2 Microencapsulation of iron 288 11.3.3 Nanofunctional ingredients 289 11.4 Cheese 291 11.4.1 Microencapsulation for accelerated cheese ripening 291 11.4.2 Microencapsulation of iron 292 11.4.3 Nanopowdered functional ingredients 292 11.5 Others 293 11.5.1 Microencapsulation of iron 293 11.6 Conclusion 293 References 294 12 Application of Nano
and Microencapsulated Materials to Food Packaging 301 Loong
Tak Lim 12.1 Introduction 301 12.2 Nanocomposite technologies 302 12.2.1 Layered silicate nanocomposites 302 12.2.2 Mineral oxide and organic nanocrystal composites 305 12.2.3 Material properties' enhancement of biodegradable/compostable polymers 306 12.3 Intelligent and active packaging based on nano
and microencapsulation technologies 307 12.3.1 Product quality and shelf
life indicators 308 12.3.2 Nano
and microencapsulated antimicrobial composites 312 12.3.3 TiO2 ethylene scavenger for shelf
life extension of fruits and vegetables 317 12.4 Conclusion 318 References 319 Part III Bioactivity, toxicity, and regulation of nanomaterial, nano
and microencapsulated ingredients 325 13 Controlled Release of Food Ingredients 327 Sanghoon Ko and Sundaram Gunasekaran 13.1 Introduction 327 13.2 Fracturation 328 13.3 Diffusion 329 13.4 Dissolution 331 13.5 Biodegradation 333 13.6 External and internal triggering 334 13.6.1 Thermosensitive 335 13.6.2 Acoustic sensitive 336 13.6.3 Light
sensitive 337 13.6.4 pH
sensitive 338 13.6.5 Chemical
sensitive 339 13.6.6 Enzyme
sensitive 339 13.6.7 Other stimuli 340 13.7 Conclusion 340 References 340 14 Bioavailability and Bioactivity of Nanomaterial, Nano
and Microencapsulated Ingredients in Foods 345 Soo
Jin Choi 14.1 Introduction 345 14.2 Bioavailability of nano
and microencapsulated phytochemicals 347 14.3 Bioavailability of other nano
and microencapsulated nutraceuticals 352 14.4 Bioavailability of nano
and microencapsulated bioactive components 355 14.5 Conclusion 357 References 358 15 Potential Toxicity of Food Ingredients Loaded in Nano
and Microparticles 363 Guanyu Chen, Soon
Mi Shim, and Jingyuan Wen 15.1 Introduction 363 15.2 Factors influence the toxicity of nano
and microparticles 365 15.2.1 Size of the nano
and microparticles 366 15.2.2 Shape of the nano
and microparticles 367 15.2.3 Solubility of the nano
and microparticles 367 15.2.4 Chemical composition of the nano
and microparticles 367 15.3 Behavior and health risk of nano
and microparticles in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract 370 15.3.1 Absorption 370 15.3.2 Distribution 371 15.3.3 Excretion/elimination 371 15.4 Toxicity studies of nano
and microparticles 371 15.4.1 Oral exposure studies for toxicity 371 15.4.2 In vitro studies for toxicity 372 15.4.3 Lack of an analytical method model to evaluate the safety of micro
and nanoparticles 373 15.5 Risk assessment of micro
and nanomaterials in food applications 374 15.5.1 Risk assessment 375 15.6 Conclusion 377 References 377 16 Current Regulation of Nanomaterials Used as Food Ingredients 383 Hyun
Kyung Kim, Jong
Gu Lee, and Si
Young Lee 16.1 Introduction 383 16.2 The European Union (EU) 384 16.2.1 Definition 384 16.2.2 The EFSA Guidance 385 16.2.3 Regulation 386 16.3 The United Kingdom (UK) 388 16.4 France 389 16.5 The United States of America (USA) 389 16.6 Canada 391 16.7 Korea 392 16.8 Australia and New Zealand 393 References 393 Index 395