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Lisa Sousa is Professor of History at Occidental College.

Produktbeschreibung
Lisa Sousa is Professor of History at Occidental College.
  • Produktdetails
  • Verlag: STANFORD UNIV PR
  • Seitenzahl: 424
  • Erscheinungstermin: 11. Januar 2017
  • Englisch
  • Abmessung: 231mm x 155mm x 28mm
  • Gewicht: 680g
  • ISBN-13: 9780804756402
  • ISBN-10: 0804756406
  • Artikelnr.: 45001036
Autorenporträt
Lisa Sousa is Professor of History at Occidental College.
Inhaltsangabe
Contents and Abstracts 1Introduction chapter abstract Chapter 1 provides an introduction to major themes of the study and to the historical background of the indigenous groups of central Mexico and Oaxaca-the Nahua
Ñudzahui (Mixtec)
Bènizàa (Zapotec)
and Ayuk (Mixe) peoples-that are the focus of the book. The chapter lays out the dramatic changes that took place in native communities in the decades following the Spanish conquest (1519-21)
including depopulation
sociopolitical reorganization
imposition of Christianity
and economic reorientation. Chapter 1 provides a general overview of social structure and gender relations in the post-classic and colonial periods. The Introduction places the work and its contributions in the context of the scholarship on colonial Mexican ethnohistory and Latin American women's history
and discusses the sources and methods used in the study. 2Gender and the Body chapter abstract Chapter 2 draws on theories of the body
gender performativity
and dress
to show how gender was inscribed on the body to create the appearance of difference
which
in turn
shaped all social relations. The chapter analyzes aspects of indigenous gender ideology and concepts of the body as expressed in life-cycle rituals
native-language metaphors and terminology
and beliefs pertaining to the calendar
tonalism
and nahualism. The chapter argues that concepts concerning the fluidity of the body and gender identity undermined essentializing ideologies. The work examines the construction of gender through labor
drawing on Nahua and Bènizàa rituals as two central case studies. The chapter also considers clothing and adornment and speech and behavior
which served as mechanisms to stabilize the body and impose identity. Chapter 2 concludes with a discussion of cross-gendering which occurred when individuals adopted the dress
labor roles
and mannerisms of the "opposite sex." 3Marriage Encounters chapter abstract Chapter 3 considers the encounter between traditional indigenous practices and Christian marriage in colonial highland Mexico. The first section examines differing nuptial concepts and ceremonies of indigenous groups and Spaniards
and considers ecclesiastics' attempts to promote indissoluble
monogamous Christian marriage as a cornerstone of the broader evangelization project. Special attention is given to how Spanish efforts to eradicate native practices of serial monogamy
polygyny
and divorce altered indigenous concepts and customs. The second part of the chapter examines how marriages were arranged and celebrated. It reconstructs indigenous weddings and traces the development of local native-Christian ceremonies
which incorporated some aspects of traditional rituals but significantly altered others. The chapter considers how the marriage encounter in colonial Mexico engendered conflict
compromise
and the creation of new practices. 4Marital Relations chapter abstract Chapter 4 examines marital relations in indigenous communities of highland Mexico. The first part of the chapter reveals the social
political
and economic significance of marriage to shed light on marital expectations and obligations. The chapter also considers informal unions
and the circumstances that gave rise to these types of arrangements. The second section of the chapter examines marital conflicts and domestic violence that developed in failed relationships. Formal and informal attempts to resolve disputes illustrate cultural expectations and attitudes about one's rights within a relationship. The study reveals a complex process of negotiation among husbands and wives
their households
and local native officials
in which women sometimes aired their grievances before the community. Chapter 4 argues that the criminal prosecution of wife-beating suggests that domestic violence
especially when it was deemed excessive
was not condoned in indigenous communities. 5Sexual Attitudes and Concepts chapter abstract Chapter 5 examines indigenous sexual ideology and attitudes based on the analysis of Mesoamerican metaphors and symbols that were used to discuss and represent sexual matters. The chapter shows that the principal concern in these texts was the necessity for moderation in sexual relations. Excessive intercourse
adulterous relations
and the use of aphrodisiacs could all lead to impotence
illness
and violence. Flowers
food
feathers
speech
and sight were invoked in metaphors and as symbols to represent sexuality in alphabetic and pictorial texts. They continued to resonate in the narratives and actions of indigenous people in colonial times. Chapter 5 considers how Spanish friars adopted some indigenous concepts in their efforts to promote Christian morality
and in turn how Spanish mores
Christian teaching
and colonial law affected native sexuality. The chapter argues
however
that Spanish Christian values regarding morality and sexuality influenced
but did not completely change
indigenous attitudes and practices. 6Sexual Crimes chapter abstract Chapter 6 studies sexual attitudes and crimes
including adultery and rape
and their prosecution in preconquest and colonial times. Indigenous peoples themselves
not strictly friars
enforced a moral code of sexual behavior by gossiping about local scandals
reporting crimes to indigenous and Spanish magistrates
testifying in criminal trials about alleged transgressions
and in more extreme cases
resorting to violence
often with the help of relatives and friends
to punish misconduct. The chapter considers the ways in which indigenous and Spanish attitudes converged
especially in the importance placed on marriage as an institution that regulates sexuality and the strong condemnation of rape and adultery. Chapter 6 examines the relationship between sexual infidelity and violence in the household and community. Finally this chapter shows how Spanish attitudes regarding virginity and honor influenced
but did not alter entirely
indigenous gender ideology after the sixteenth century. 7Duties and Responsibilities chapter abstract Chapter 7 addresses the gendered division of labor at the household and community levels. The chapter examines women's roles as weavers
craftpersons
producers of food and beverages
midwives and healers
community leaders
merchants
and agriculturalists. Chapter 7 challenges the gendering of "public" and "private" space that is implied in prescriptive texts by showing that women's duties took them out of the household on a daily basis
and that men
especially craftsmen
frequently worked within the home. It also considers how increasing Spanish demands for labor and tribute and the development of a money economy shaped women's roles and status. The chapter argues that
in examining various facets of women's work
it becomes evident that Spanish policies contributed to the slow erosion in women's status overtime. But Spanish pressures did not fully succeed
for underlying concepts of gender parallelism and complementarity were at the core of social organization and household relations. 8Household and Community chapter abstract Chapter 8 investigates relations within the household
focusing on family organization
ritual kinship
and residence patterns. Members of the household
whether blood relatives or not
formed a family
who were united by their collective experiences of working and living together. Marriage and ritual kinship formalized ties between households
while informal arrangements were sustained by mutual support
collaborative labor
and shared resources. The chapter explores the economic
social
moral
spiritual
and political dimensions of the household. Chapter 8 argues that household and community were two interrelated spheres
and that women were often at the center of social
economic
and political interaction. The chapter also examines how ritual kinship created multidimensional webs of relations among households and provided important social networks for women. 9Rebellious Women chapter abstract Chapter 9 studies women's participation in public protests and acts of civil disobedience
including riots. It shows how threats to the integrity of the household and community
such as increased demands for tribute and labor
disputes over land and natural resources
and Spanish attempts to remove local officials from office
led men and women to seek legal redress
to protest
and at times to rebel against colonial authorities. The chapter traces women's efforts to organize acts of resistance
such as the refusal to pay tribute
and their leadership roles in local riots. While women did not hold political office
they were aware of controversies over lands
resources
and legal suits to protect these assets. Chapter 9 argues that women's participation in efforts to defend their homes
communities
and allies reveals a broader consciousness that has been overlooked or underestimated in previous studies. 10Conclusion chapter abstract The concluding chapter reiterates the book's major arguments and places the study's contributions within the context of the existing scholarship on Mesoamerican ethnohistory and women's history. The chapter considers the evidence for both major changes and continuities in indigenous social and gender relations in rural communities of central Mexico and Oaxaca between 1520 to 1750. The chapter argues that many factors over time contributed to the erosion of native women's status. Nevertheless
women responded to the many challenges that they faced to defend their interests
as well as those of their households and communities.