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Understanding Behaviorism is a classic textbook that explains the basis of behavior analysis and its application to human problems in a scholarly but accessible manner. * Now in its third edition, the text has been substantially updated to include the latest developments over the last decade in behaviour analysis, evolutionary theory, and cultural evolution theory * The only book available that explains behavior analysis and applies it to philosophical and practical problems, written by one of today's best-known and most highly respected behaviorists * Explores ancient concepts such as…mehr

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Produktbeschreibung
Understanding Behaviorism is a classic textbook that explains the basis of behavior analysis and its application to human problems in a scholarly but accessible manner. * Now in its third edition, the text has been substantially updated to include the latest developments over the last decade in behaviour analysis, evolutionary theory, and cultural evolution theory * The only book available that explains behavior analysis and applies it to philosophical and practical problems, written by one of today's best-known and most highly respected behaviorists * Explores ancient concepts such as purpose, language, knowledge, and thought, as well as applying behavioural thinking to contemporary social issues like freedom, democracy, and culture * Part of the new evolutionary perspective for understanding individual behavior in general and culture in particular - culminates with practical approaches to improving the lives of all humanity
  • Produktdetails
  • Verlag: John Wiley & Sons
  • Seitenzahl: 320
  • Erscheinungstermin: 03.01.2017
  • Englisch
  • ISBN-13: 9781119143666
  • Artikelnr.: 47510096
Autorenporträt
William M. Baum is Professor Emeritus at the University of New Hampshire and a Research Associate at University of California, Davis. He taught for seven years at Harvard University and for more than twenty years at the University of New Hampshire. He has published over one hundred journal articles. These have presented quantitative laboratory research, theoretical contributions, and philosophical contributions. His research interests include choice, cultural evolution, behavioural processes, and philosophy of behaviour.
Inhaltsangabe
Preface to the Third Edition xv

Acknowledgements xvii

Part I What is Behaviorism? 1

1 Behaviorism: Definition and History 3

Historical Background 3

From Philosophy to Science 3

Objective Psychology 6

Comparative Psychology 7

Early Behaviorism 8

Free Will Versus Determinism 10

Definitions 10

Arguments For and Against Free Will 11

Social Arguments 12

Aesthetic Arguments 13

Folk Psychology 15

Summary 15

Further Reading 17

Keyterms 17

2 Behaviorism as Philosophy of Science 19

Realism versus Pragmatism 19

Realism 19

The Objective Universe 20

Discovery and Truth 20

Sense Data and Subjectivity 20

Explanation 22

Pragmatism 22Science and Experience 24

Conceptual Economy 25

Explanation and Description 27

Radical Behaviorism and Pragmatism 28

Summary 31

Further Reading 32

Keyterms 32

3 Public, Private, Natural, and Fictional 33

Mentalism 33

Public and Private Events 33

Natural Events 34

Natural, Mental, and Fictional 35

Objections to Mentalism 37

Autonomy: Mental Causes Obstruct Inquiry 37

Superfluity: Explanatory Fictions are Uneconomical 38

Category Mistakes 40

Ryle and the Para-Mechanical Hypothesis 41

Rachlin's Molar Behaviorism 42

Private Events 46

Private Behavior 46

Self-Knowledge and Consciousness 49

Summary 52

Further Reading 54

Keyterms 55

Part II A Scientific Model of Behavior 57

4 Evolutionary Theory and Reinforcement 59

Evolutionary History 59

Natural Selection 60

Reflexes and Fixed Action Patterns 62

Reflexes 62

Fixed Action Patterns 62

Respondent Conditioning 64

Reinforcers and Punishers 66

Operant Behavior 66

Physiological Factors 68

Overview of Phylogenetic Influences 70

History of Reinforcement 70

Selection by Consequences 71

The Law of Effect 71

Shaping and Natural Selection 71

Historical Explanations 75

Summary 77

Further Reading 78

Keyterms 78

5 Purpose and Reinforcement 81

History and Function 81

Using Historical Explanations 82

History Versus Immediate Cause 82

Gaps of Time 82

Functional Units 83

Species as Functional Units 84

Activities as Functional Units 84

Three Meanings of Purpose 86

Purpose as Function 86

Purpose as Cause 87

Purposive Behavior 88

Purposive Machines 89

Selection by Consequences 90

Creativity 90

Purpose as Feeling: Self-Reports 92

Talking About the Future 92

Talking About the Past 92

Feelings as By-Products 93

Summary 94

Further Reading 95

Keyterms 96

6 Stimulus Control and Knowledge 97

Stimulus Control 97

Discriminative Stimuli 98

Extended Sequences and Discriminative Stimuli 100

Discrimination 101

Knowledge 102

Procedural Knowledge: Knowing How 103

Declarative Knowledge: Knowing About 105

Declarative Knowledge and Stimulus Control 105

What is a Lie? 106

Self-Knowledge 107

Public Versus Private Stimuli 107

Introspection 110

The Behavior of Scientists 111

Observation and Discrimination 111

Scientific Knowledge 112

Pragmatism and Contextualism 112

Summary 113

Further Reading 114

Keyterms 115
7 Verbal Behavior and Language 117

What is Verbal Behavior? 117

Communication 117

Verbal Behavior as Operant Behavior 118

Speaking Has Consequences 118

The Verbal Community 118

Speaker and Listener 119

The Verbal Episode 119

The Reinforcement of Verbal Behavior 120

The Listener's Role 121

Examples 122

The Importance of History 122

Sign Language and Gestures 123

Nonhuman Animals 123

Talking to Myself 124

Verbal Behavior versus Language 125

Functional Units and Stimulus Control 126

Verbal Activities as Functional Units 126

Stimulus Control of Verbal Behavior 128

Common Misunderstandings 129

The Generative Nature of Language 129

Talking About Talking 129

Talking About the Future 130

Meaning 131

Reference Theories
Rezensionen
Synthesizing the principles of behavior analysis with contemporary understanding of evolutionary selection, Baum's account progresses systematically from basic pragmatic behavior all the way to the practices that constitute human cultural values. The resulting book is a modern equivalent of B.F. Skinner's ground-breaking Science and Human Behavior.--Philip N. Hineline, Ph.D., Professor Emeritus, Temple University, and President of the Association for Behavior Analysis International (ABAI) In clear, lively prose Baum's book gives students as well as laypeople an understanding of the cutting edge of behavioristic thought. In this third edition, Baum embeds behavioral psychology even more firmly than previously in its proper setting--that of evolutionary biology. The book is actually an instrument (like a telescope or a microscope) through which the reader may observe human life as it really is, rather than as common sense (that which says the sun goes round the earth) tells us it is.--Howard Rachlin, Ph.D., Professor Emeritus, Stony Brook University In some quarters in the human sciences the roles of reinforcement and punishment in shaping individual behavior and cultural evolution have been neglected. Understanding Behaviorism explains why this is a serious mistake.--Peter J. Richerson, Ph.D., Professor Emeritus, University of California Davis A mainstay in my undergraduate learning course, Understanding Behaviorism is an excellent text covering the core concepts of both the philosophy of behaviorism and the science of behavior analysis. Dr. Baum provides a clear, accessible introduction that anyone interested in behavior analysis or psychology should read.--Matthew Bell, Ph.D., Associate Professor, University of California San Diego What a thorough and highly intelligible piece of writing! By elucidating the bigger picture and the relation to its parts, this brilliant third edition truly facilitates understanding behaviorism and its relation to evolutionary theory. It will be my go-to-guide for many years of tuition and research to come.--Carsta Simon, Doctoral Student, Oslo and Akershus University College, Norway…mehr