Dust storms are a vital component of the environment. This book explores and summarises recent research on where dust storms originate, why dust storms are generated, where dust is transported and deposited, the nature of dust deposits and the changing frequency of dust storms over a range of time-scales. It is the first global study of causes and effects of dust storms, which are one of the increasing nature catastrophes. …mehr
Dust storms are a vital component of the environment. This book explores and summarises recent research on where dust storms originate, why dust storms are generated, where dust is transported and deposited, the nature of dust deposits and the changing frequency of dust storms over a range of time-scales. It is the first global study of causes and effects of dust storms, which are one of the increasing nature catastrophes.
1 The Nature and Importance of Dust Storms 1.1 Introduction 1.2 Methods of Study 2 Dust Entrainment, Transport and Deposition 2.1 Introduction 2.2 The Origin of Desert Dust Particles 2.3 Threshold Velocities and Environments of Deflation 2.4 Wind Erosion of Soil and Other Surface Materials 2.5 Synoptic Meteorological Conditions Leading to Dust Events 2.6 Long-Range Transport 2.7 Wet and Dry Deposition 2.8 The 'Giant' Dust Particle Conundrum 3 Environmental and Human Consequences 3.1 Introduction 3.2 Marine Ecosystems 3.3 Aeolian Erosion of Soils 3.4 Aeolian Contamination of Soils 3.5 Stone Pavements 3.6 Duricrusts 3.7 Salinization and Acidity 3.8 Desert Depressions and Yardangs 3.9 Dust and Radiative Forcing 3.10 Dust and Atmospheric CO2 3.11 Dust and Tropospheric Ozone 3.12 Dust and Clouds 3.13 Economic Effects 3.14 Health 3.15 Dust Storms in War 4 The Global Picture 4.1 Introduction 4.2 Major Global Sources 4.3 Dust Storms and Rainfall 4.4 Vegetation and Dry Lake Beds 4.5 Diurnal and Seasonal Timing of Dust Storms 4.6 Duration of Dust Storms 4.7 Dust Storms on Mars 5 The Regional Picture 5.1 Introduction 5.2 North America 5.3 South America 5.4 Southern Africa 5.5 The Sahara 5.6 Trajectories of Saharan Dust Transport 5.7 Middle East 5.8 South West Asia 5.9 Central Asia and the Former USSR 5.10 China 5.11 Mongolia 5.12 Trajectories of Dust Transport from China and Mongolia 5.13 Australia 6 Dust Concentrations, Accumulation and Constituents 6.1 Dust Contents of Air 6.2 Dust Deposition andAccumulation 6.3 Particle Sizes 6.4 Dust Chemistry 6.5 Clay Mineralogy of Dust 7 Changing Frequencies of Dust Storms 7.1 Introduction 7.2 The United States Dust Bowl 7.3 Mexico 7.4 Saharan Dust Events 7.5 Russia and its Neighbours 7.6 Pakistan 7.7 China and Mongolia 7.8 Australia 7.9 The Aeolian Environment in a Warmer World 7.10 Conclusions 8 Dust Storm Control 8.1 Introduction 8.2 Agronomic Measures 8.3 Soil Management 8.4 Mechanical Methods 8.5 Miscellaneous Methods to Reduce Dust Emissions 9 Quaternary Dust Loadings 9.1 Introduction 9.2 Ocean Cores 9.3 Dust Deposition as Recorded in Ice Cores 9.4 Loess Accumulation Rates 10 Loess 10.1 Introduction 10.2 PeriSaharan Loess 10.3 Central Asian Loess 10.4 Chinese Loess 10.5 Conclusions References Subject Index
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