Joseph Liouville 1809-1882: Master of Pure and Applied Mathematics - Lützen, Jesper
263,99 €
versandkostenfrei*

inkl. MwSt.
Versandfertig in über 4 Wochen
132 °P sammeln
    Gebundenes Buch

This scientific biography of the mathematician Joseph Liouville is divided into two parts. The first part is a chronological account of Liouville's career including a description of the institutions he worked in, his relations with his teachers, colleagues and students, and the historical context of his works. It portrays the French scientific community in a period when Germany and England had surpassed France as the leading nations in mathematics and physics. The second part of the book gives a detailed analysis of Liouville's major contributions to mathematics and mechanics. The gradual…mehr

Produktbeschreibung
This scientific biography of the mathematician Joseph Liouville is divided into two parts. The first part is a chronological account of Liouville's career including a description of the institutions he worked in, his relations with his teachers, colleagues and students, and the historical context of his works. It portrays the French scientific community in a period when Germany and England had surpassed France as the leading nations in mathematics and physics. The second part of the book gives a detailed analysis of Liouville's major contributions to mathematics and mechanics. The gradual development of Liouville's ideas, as reflected in his publications and notebooks, are related to the works of his predecessors and his contemporaries as well as to later developments in the field. On the basis of Liouville's unpublished notes the book reconstructs Liouville's hitherto unknown theories of stability of rotating masses of fluid, potential theory, Galois theory and electrodynamics. It also incorporates valuable added information from Liouville's notes regarding his works on differentiation of arbitrary order, integration in finite terms, Sturm-Liouville theory, transcendental numbers, doubly periodic functions, geometry and mechanics.
  • Produktdetails
  • Studies in History of Mathematics and Physical Sciences Vol.15
  • Verlag: Springer, Berlin
  • 1990
  • Seitenzahl: 885
  • Erscheinungstermin: August 1990
  • Englisch
  • Abmessung: 242mm x 159mm x 46mm
  • Gewicht: 1414g
  • ISBN-13: 9780387971803
  • ISBN-10: 0387971807
  • Artikelnr.: 09223882
Inhaltsangabe
I. The Career of a Mathematician.
I. Youth (1809
1830).
Early Interests in Mathematics.
Student at the École Polytechnique.
The Ponts et Chausées.
The Independent Researcher.
II. Climbing the Academic Ladder (1830
1840).
The Public School System.
The École Centrale; Colladon and Sturm.
Scientific Societies; the Société Philomatique.
The Creation of New Fields.
The Creation of Liouville's Journal.
Defeats at the Académie and at the École Polytechnique.
Magnanimity toward Sturm.
Success at the Collège de France and at the École Polytechnique.
A Vacancy in the Astronomy Section of the Académie.
Opposition from Libri.
Liouville and Dirichlet against Libri.
Election to the Bureau des Longitudes.
III. Professor, Academician, and Editor (1840
1848).
Setting the Stage.
The École Polytechnique.
Administrative Duties.
Liouville's "Cours d'Analyse et de Mécanique".
Rigor.
Notes in Navier's Résumé.
Other Related Works; Transcendental Numbers.
Influence.
Collège de France.
Inspiring Courses.
A Scandalous Election; Liouville, Cauchy, and Libri.
Académie des Sciences.
The Active Examiner.
Fermat's Last Theorem.
International Contacts.
Prize Competitions.
The Bureau des Longitudes.
Cauchy's Membership?.
Presentation of New Ideas.
Journal Editor.
Guiding Young Talents.
Le Verrier (Catalan and Delaunay).
From Irresolution to Authority.
Quarrel with Pontécoulant.
The Name Neptune.
Hermite, Bertrand, and Serret.
Two Reports.
Last Clash with Libri.
Hermite and Doubly Periodic Functions.
J. A. Serret; "Elliptic Curves".
Galois Theory.
Foreign Visitors.
Steiner, The Dublin School, Geometry.
William Thomson
Lord Kelvin.
A Coherent Mathematical Universe.
IV. The Second Republic (1848
1852).
Banquets Rèformistes (1840).
Political Opposition (1840
1848).
The 1848 Revolution.
Candidate for the Constituting Assembly.
Member of the Constituting Assembly.
The Bitter Defeat (1849).
Reduced Mathematical Activity.
The Second Election at the College de France; Retirement from the École Polytechnique.
Lectures at the Collège de France.
The Disappointing Outcome of the Second Republic.
V. The Last Flash of Genius (1852
1862).
Imperial Politics; Its Influence on Liouville's Family.
Ernest Liouville, Statistics, Bienaymè (1852
1853).
Liouville Opposing Le Verrier (1852
1854).
Friendship with Dirichlet.
Mathematical Production (1852
1857).
Sturm's Death.
Chasles's Substitute?.
Competition with J. A. Serret.
Professor of Mechanics at the Facultè des Sciences.
Courses at the Collège de France.
Chebyshev.
Scandinavian Students.
Great Teaching Load
No Research.
Bad Health.
Liouville's Final Opinion of Cauchy.
Liouville Commerating Dirichlet.
"I myself, who only like my hole".
The Quarrels with Le Verrier Continued.
Declining Influence in the Académie; Bour.
Official Honors.
VI. Old Age (1862
1882).
Mathematical Work.
Lecturer and Promoter.
Public Life.
The Franco
Prussian War and the Commune.
Foreign Member of the Berlin Academy.
The Last Courses.
Domestic Life.
The Stay in Toul, Summer and Autumn 1876.
Longing for Death.
Posthumous Reputation.
II. Mathematical Work.
VII. Juvenile Work.
Electrodynamics.
Ampère's Electrodynamics.
Liouville's Contributions.
Theory of Heat.
Laplace, Fourier, and Poisson on the Heat Equation.
Liouville's Contribution.
Differential Equations.
VIII. Differentiation of Arbitrary Order.
Applications, the Source of Interest.
Foundations.
Fractional Differential Equations.
Rigor.
Concluding Remarks.
IX. Integration in Finite Terms.
Historical Background.
Abel's Contributions.
Integration in Algebraic Terms.
Integration in Finite Terms.
Solution of Differential Equations in Finite Terms.
Further Developments.
Conclusion.
X. Sturm
Liouville Theory.
The Roots of Sturm
Liouville Theory.
The physical origins.
D'Alembert's Contribution.
Fourier's Contribution.
Poisson's Contribution.
Sturm's First Memoir.
Origins.
Sturm's Second Memoir.
Liouville's Youthful Work on Heat Conduction.
Liouville's Mature Papers on Second
Order Differential Equations. Expansion in Fourier Series.
Convergence of Fourier Series.
Determination of the Sum of the Fourier Series.
Minor Results.
Liouville's Generalization of Sturm
Liouville Theory to Higher
Order Equations.
Third Degree; Constant Coefficients.
Higher Degree; Variable Coefficients.
Further Generalizations.
Concluding Remarks.
XI. Figures of Equilibrium of a Rotating Mass of Fluid.
Prehistory; Maclaurin Ellipsoids.
Jacobi Ellipsoids.
Stability of Equilibrium Figures.
Sources.
Results on Stability.
Successors.
Methods and Proofs.
Formulas for the Force Vive.
Liquid on an Almost Spherical Kernel.
Lame Functions.
Stability of Fluid Ellipsoids.
A Corrected and an Uncorrected Error.
Concluding Remarks.
XII. Transcendental Numbers.
Historical Background.
Liouville on the Transcendence of e (1840).
Construction of Transcendental Numbers (1844).
The Impact of Liouville's Discovery.
XIII. Doubly Periodic Functions.
General Introduction; Diffusion of Liouville's Ideas.
Division of the Lemniscate.
The Discovery of Liouville's Theorem.
The Gradual Development of the General Theory.
The Final Form of Liouville's Theory.
Conclusion.
XIV. Galois Theory.
The "Avertissement".
Galois's Friends?.
Galois Theory According to Galois.
Liouville's Commentaries.
Proposition II.
Proposition VI
VIII.
Liouville's Publication of the Works of Galois.
Liouville's Understanding of Galois Theory.
Liouville's Impact.
XV. Potential Theory.
The Genesis of Potential Theory.
Liouville's Published Contributions.
Liouville on Potentials of Ellipsoids.
Liouville's Unpublished Notes on Spectral Theory of Integral Operators in Potential Theory.
Interpretation of the Major Result.
A Posteriori Motivation.
Reconstruction of the A Priori Proof.
The Paper on the General Spectral Theory of Symmetric Integral Operators.
Unsolved Problems, Alternative Methods.
Anticipation of Weierstrass's Criticism of the Dirichlet Principle.
Are Liouville's Results Correct?.
Poincaré's Fundamental Functions.
Later Developments.
XVI. Mechanics.
The Theory of Perturbation by Variation of the Arbitrary Constants.
Celestial Mechanics.
Two Publications by Liouville on Planetary Perturbations.
The Chronological Development of Liouville's Ideas.
Atmospherical Refraction.
Conclusion.
Liouville's Theorem "on the Volume in Phase Space".
Rational Mechanics.
The Hamilton
Jacobi Formalism.
Liouville's Theorem and a Precursor.
Poisson on Liouville's Theorem.
The Publication of Jacobi's Ideas.
Jacobi on Liouville's Theorem.
Parisian Developments Prompting Liouville's Publication of His Theorem.
Liouville's Lecture on Mechanics.
The Geometrization of the Principle of Least Action.
Liouville's Unpublished Notes; Generalized Poisson Brackets.
The "Liouvillian" Integrable Systems.
Concluding Remarks.
XVII. Geometry.
Analytic versus Synthetic Geometry; Chasles's Influence.
Relations with Mechanics and Elliptic and Abelian Functions; Jacobi's Influence.
Inversion in Spheres; William Thomson's Influence.
Contributions to Gaussian Differential Geometry.
Appendix I. Liouville on Ampère's Force Law.
Appendix II. Liouville's Notes on Galois Theory.
Notes.
Unpublished Manuscripts and Other Archival Material.
List of J. Liouville's Published Works.
Other References.