Chapter 1: INTRODUCTION CONTRIBUTION OF FERNS TO UNDERSTANDING OF PLANT DEVELOPMENT Chapter 2 Cellular, molecular and genetic changes during the development of Ceratopteris richardii gametophytes Authors: Salmi M, Bushart T and Roux S J Chapter 3 Laboratory-induced Apogamy and Apospory in Ceratopteris richardii Authors: Cordle AR., Bui LT, Irish EE, and Cheng C-L Chapter 4 Sexual reproduction in ferns Authors: Menéndez V, Revilla A, Peredo E, Revilla MA, and Fernández H. Chapter 5 Gibberellic acid and ethylene control male sex determination and development of Anemia phyllitidis gametophytes Author: Kazmierczak A. Chapter 6 The sporophytes of seed-free vascular plants -major vegetative developmental features and molecular genetic pathways Authors: Tomescu A. PROPAGATION, CONSERVATION AND CONTROL OF GENETIC VARIABILITY IN FERNS. Chapter 7 Form spore to sporophyte: How to proceed in vitro Authors: Menéndez V, Arbesú R, Somer M, Revilla A, and Fernández H. Chapter 8 In vitro regeneration systems of Platycerium Authors: Camloh M and Ambrozic-Dolinsek J. Chapter 9 Stipule propagation in five Marattioid species native to Taiwan (Marattiaceae; Pteridophyta) Authors: Huang Y-M, Huang M-H, Chen C-M, Chiou W-L Chapter 10 Tree ferns biotechnology: from spores to sporophytes Authors: Rybczy?ski JJ and Miku?a A. Chapter 11 In Vitro Propagation of Rare and Endangered Serpentine Fern Species Authors: Marsza?-Jagacka J and Kromer K Chapter 12 Conservation of fern spores. Authors: Ballesteros D. Chapter 13 Exploration of cryo-methods to preserve tree and herbaceous fern gametophytes Authors: Miku?a A, Makowski D, Walters C, and Rybczy?ski JJ. Chapter 14 Pteridophyte spores viability Autores: Gabriel y Galán JM, and Prada C. Chapter 15 Microsatellites: a powerful genetic marker for fern research Author: Jiménez-Soria A. Chapter 16 Diversity in natural fern populations: dominant markers as genetic tools. Authors: Peredo EL, Revilla MA, Méndez M,Menéndez V and Fernández H. ENVIRONMENTAL BIOTECHNOLOGY: ECOTOXICOLOGY AND BIOREMEDIATION IN FERNS Chapter 17 Mitochondrial activity of fern spores for the evaluation of acute totoxicity in higher plant development Authors: Catalá M, Esteban M and García L. Chapter 18 Chronic phytotoxicity in gametophytes: DNA as biomarker of growth and chlorophyll autofluorescence as biomarker of cell function Authors: Catalá M and Rodriguez-Gil JL. Chapter 19 Arsenic hyperaccumulator fern Pteris vittata: Utilities for arsenic phytoremediation and plant biotechnology Author: Rathinasabapathi B.Chapter 20 Aerobiology of Pteridophyta spores: preliminary results and applications Author: Rodriguez de la Cruz D. THERAPEUTICAL/MEDICINAL APPLICATIONS Chapter 21 Studies on Folk Medicinal Fern: An example of "Gusuibu" Author: Chang H-C, Gupta SK and Tsay H-S. Chapter 22 Ecdysteroids in Ferns: diversity, distribution, biosynthesis and functions Authors: Lafont R, Ho R, Raharivelomanana P and Dinan L. Chapter 23 Ferns - from traditional uses to pharmaceutical development; chemical identification of active principles Authors: Ho R, Teai T, Bianchini JP, Lafont R and Raharivelomanana P. Chapter 24 Functional activities of ferns for human health Authors: Lee CH and Shin SL. Chapter 25 Toxicological and medicinal aspects of the most frequent fern species Pteridium aquilinum Author: Vetter J.