This book provides discussion on the fundaments of the Smart Grid
concept and then describes the technologies that are required for
its realisation. It allows the reader to engage with the immediate
development of the power system and to take part in the debate over
the future Smart Grid. The book opens with an overview on
understanding the Smart Grid, and then is divided into three
sections. Section 1 ('Information and Communications
Technologies') covers communication standards for the Smart
Grid. Section Two discusses sensing, measurement, control and
automation.Smart metering and demand side participation are
described in detail, before distribution automation and the
distribution management system. The last chapter of this section
covers advanced transmission system operation. Section Three looks
at power electronic and advanced components. First of all the topic
of power electronics in power demand and supply is presented.
Enabling technologies and advanced components are described last of
all, giving a balanced view of Smart Grids.
Professor Janaka Ekanayake, Cardiff University, UK Professor Ekanayake is currently at the Institute of Energy at Cardiff University. As module leader on an MSc course, he teaches intelligent electronic devices, their applications and automation. He also teaches power electronic applications to power systems, flexible ac transmission systems and HVDC.Previous to this he was a Research Fellow at the University of Manchester. He was promoted to Professor in Electrical and Electronic Engineering at the University of Peradeniya, Sri Lanka in 2003. Professor Ekanayake has published over 25 papers in refereed journals and has co-authored three books in the area of wind integration. Dr Kithsiri Liyanage, University of Peradeniya, Sri Lanka Dr Liyanage is Senior Lecturer in the Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, University of Peradeniya. Prior to this he served as Dean of the Faculty of Engineering, University of Ruhuna and as Director of the Information Technology Centre, University of Peradenyia. He has been with the University of Tokyo as a Visiting Research Fellow since 2008. He has served as coordinator of and consultant to several ICT and power generation projects. Dr Jianzhong Wu, Cardiff University, UK Dr Wu is a lecturer at the Institute of Energy, School of Engineering, Cardiff University. Privious to this he was a research fellow at the University of Manchester and Associate Professor at Tianjin University, China. He has been involved in several Chinese national research programmes, developing advanced software tools for distribution network operation, planning, for on-line security monitoring, assessment and optimisation for transmission networks. Professor Akihiko Yokoyama, University of Tokyo, Japan Professor Yokoyama is based at the Department of Engineering at the University of Tokyo. He is alsoProfessor in the Department of Advanced Energy at the Graduate School of Frontier Sciences He has co-authored two books, and is Chairman of PES Council of IEEE Japan. He is Vice Chair- man of the Japanese National Committee of CIGRE, and Vice President of Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry of Japan. Professor Nicholas Jenkins, Cardiff University, UK Professor Jenkins moved to Cardiff University in 2008 after ten years as a professor at the University of Manchester. He has contributed to ten books and is a Fellow of the IET, IEEE and the Royal Academy of Engineering. He was a member of Advisory Council of the CEU SmartGrid Technology Platform. Professor Jenkins is presently the Shimizu Visiting Professor at Stanford University.
About the authors xi Preface xiii Acknowledgements xv List of abbreviations xvii 1 The Smart Grid 1 1.1 Introduction 1 1.2 Why implement the Smart Grid now? 2 1.3 What is the Smart Grid? 6 1.4 Early Smart Grid initiatives 7 1.5 Overview of the technologies required for the Smart Grid 12 References 14 Part I INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIES 2 Data communication 19 2.1 Introduction 19 2.2 Dedicated and shared communication channels 19 2.3 Switching techniques 23 2.4 Communication channels 25 2.5 Layered architecture and protocols 35 References 43 3 Communication technologies for the Smart Grid 45 3.1 Introduction 45 3.2 Communication technologies 46 3.3 Standards for information exchange 62 References 66 4 Information security for the Smart Grid 69 4.1 Introduction 69 4.2 Encryption and decryption 70 4.3 Authentication 76 4.4 Digital signatures 77 4.5 Cyber security standards 79 References 80 Part II SENSING, MEASUREMENT, CONTROL AND AUTOMATION TECHNOLOGIES 5 Smart metering and demand-side integration 83 5.1 Introduction 83 5.2 Smart metering 84 5.3 Smart meters: An overview of the hardware used 86 5.4 Communications infrastructure and protocols for smart metering 96 5.5 Demand-side integration 99 References 111 6 Distribution automation equipment 113 6.1 Introduction 113 6.2 Substation automation equipment 114 6.3 Faults in the distribution system 125 6.4 Voltage regulation 135 References 139 7 Distribution management systems 141 7.1 Introduction 141 7.2 Data sources and associated external systems 142 7.3 Modelling and analysis tools 144 7.4 Applications 165 References 171 8 Transmission system operation 173 8.1 Introduction 173 8.2 Data sources 173 8.3 Energy management systems 177 8.4 Wide area applications 179 8.5 Visualisation techniques 183 References 186 Part III POWER ELECTRONICS AND ENERGY STORAGE 9 Power electronic converters 189 9.1 Introduction 189 9.2 Current source converters 191 9.3 Voltage source converters 195 References 203 10 Power electronics in the Smart Grid 205 10.1 Introduction 205 10.2 Renewable energy generation 206 10.3 Fault current limiting 213 10.4 Shunt compensation 217 10.5 Series compensation 228 References 231 11 Power electronics for bulk power flows 233 11.1 Introduction 233 11.2 FACTS 234 11.3 HVDC 248 References 257 12 Energy storage 259 12.1 Introduction 259 12.2 Energy storage technologies 263 12.3 Case study 1: Energy storage for wind power 271 12.4 Case study 2: Agent-based control of electrical vehicle battery charging 273 References 277 Index 279